What Drives Shopping Mall Attractiveness?

Open access

Abstract

My article investigated the drivers of shopping mall attractiveness. Which of various shopping mall qualities are key to building a mall’s attractiveness? This was the fundamental question in the cross-sectional, survey-based correlational study. The participants included 384 adult Poles (192 men and 192 women whose median age was 22). The survey included 58 items – nine to measure the shopping mall’s attractiveness (its emotional impact, cognitive effect and the customer’s visiting frequency), and 49 to measure its hypothetical predictors. The investigated objects were six urban shopping malls in Wroclaw, Poland. It turned out that shopping mall attractiveness was driven mainly by their atmosphere and social positioning. Surprisingly, the more subjectively noisy and crowded the shopping mall was, the more attractive it appeared to be; commerce-related features, on the other hand, while usually treated as vital to a shopping center, contributed relatively little to the mall’s attractiveness.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Arentze T. A. Oppewal H. & Timmermans H. J. (2005). A Multipurpose Shopping Trip Model to Assess Retail Agglomeration Effects. Journal of Marketing Research 42(1) 109-115. doi:10.1509/jmkr.42.1.109.56884.

  • Arnold M. J. & Reynolds K. E. (2003). Hedonic shopping motivations. Journal of Retailing 79(2) 77-95. doi:10.1016/S0022-4359(03)00007-1.

  • Aronson E. & Aronson J. (2012). The social animal (11th ed). New York: Worth Publishers.

  • Augé M. (1995). Non-places: Introduction to an anthropology of supermodernity. aLondon New York: Verso.

  • Babin B. Darden W. & Griffin M. (1994). Work and/or Fun: Measuring Hedonic and Utilitarian Shopping Value. Journal of Consumer Research 20(4) 644-656.

  • Backes N. (1997). Reading the Shopping Mall City. Journal of Popular Culture 31(3) 1-17. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.1997.3103_1.x.

  • Baker J. & Wakefield K. (2012). How consumer shopping orientation influences perceived crowding excitement and stress at the mall. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 40(6) 791-806.

  • Bartoszewicz D. (2004). Centra handlowe mordują centrum Warszawy? Retrieved from http://wyborcza.pl/1,75248,1992413.html.

  • Bedyńska S. & Cypryańska M. (2013). Statystyczny drogowskaz 1: Praktyczne wprowadzwnie do wnioskowania statystycznego. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Akademickie Sedno; Szkoła Wyższa Psychologii Społecznej.

  • Bellenger D. & Korgaonkar P. (1980). Profiling the Recreational Shopper. Journal of Retailing 56(3) 77-93.

  • Bellenger D. Robertson D. & Greenberg B. (1977). Shopping Center Patronage Motives. Journal of Retailing 53(2) 29-39.

  • Bilotta E. & Evans G. (2010). Environmental stress. In L. Steg & Berg Agnes E. van den (Eds.) Environmental psychology. An introduction (pp. 27-35). Wiley.

  • Bloch P. H. Ridgway N. M. & Dawson S. A. (1994). The shopping mall as consumer habitat. Journal of Retailing 70(1) 23-42. doi:10.1016/0022-4359(94)90026-4

  • Bosiacki S. & Rydlewski P. (2009). Wielkomiejskie centra i galerie handlowe jako miejsca rekreacji i atrakcje turystyczne. Zeszyty Naukowe (16).

  • Brito P. Q. (2009). Shopping centre image dynamics of a new entrant. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 37(7) 580-599. doi:10.1108/09590550910964611.

  • Brzozowski P. (1995). Skala Wartości Schelerowskich - SWS. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.

  • Cai Y. & Shannon R. (2012a). Personal values and mall shopping behavior: The mediating role of attitude and intention among Chinese and Thai consumers. Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ) 20(1) 37-47. doi:10.1016/j.ausmj.2011.10.013.

  • Cai Y. & Shannon R. (2012b). Personal values and mall shopping behaviour: The mediating role of intention among Chinese consumers. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 40(4) 290-318. doi:10.1108/09590551211211783.

  • Campbell C. (1997). Shopping Pleasure and the Sex War. In P. Falk & C. Campbell (Eds.) The shopping experience (pp. 166-176). London: Sage Publications.

  • Carmona M. (2010). Public places urban spaces: The dimensions of urban design (2nd ed). Amsterdam Boston: Architectural Press/Elsevier.

  • Chebat J.-C. Sirgy M. J. & Grzeskowiak S. (2010). How can shopping mall management best capture mall image? Journal of Business Research 63 735-740. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edselp&AN=S0148296309001660&lang=pl&site=eds-live&authtype=ip,uid.

  • Christiansen T. Comer L. Feinberg R. & Rinne H. (1999). The Effects of Mall Entertainment Value on Mall Profitability. Journal of Shopping Center Research 6(2) 7-22.

  • Cohen L. (1996). From Town Center to Shopping Center: The Reconfiguration of Community Marketplaces in Postwar America. The American Historical Review 101(4) 1050. doi:10.2307/2169634.

  • Cooper J. (2007). Cognitive dissonance: 50 years of a classic theory. London Thousand Oaks Calif: SAGE.

  • Crawford M. (1992). The World in a Shopping Mall. In M. Sorkin (Ed.) Variations on a theme park. The new American city and the end of public space. (1st ed. pp. 3-30). New York: Hill and Wang.

  • Cresswell T. (2011). Place: A short introduction. Short introductions to geography. Malden: Blackwell.

  • Dancey C. P. & Reidy J. (2011). Statistics without maths for psychology (5th ed.). Harlow: Pearson.

  • Duany A. Plater-Zyberk E. & Speck J. (2010). Suburban nation: The rise of sprawl and the decline of the American Dream (10th anniversary ed). New York: North Point Press.

  • Eagly A. & Chaiken S. (2005). Attitude Research in the 21st Century: The Current State of Knowledge. In D. Albarracin B. T. Johnson & M. P. Zanna (Eds.) The handbook of attitudes (pp. 743-768). Mahwah N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

  • eGospodarka.pl. (2011). Ranking centrów handlowych. Retrieved from http://www.egospodarka.pl/74986,Ranking-centrow-handlowych,1,39,1.html.

  • El Hedhli K. Chebat J.-C. & Sirgy M. J. (2013). Shopping well-being at the mall: Construct antecedents and consequences. Journal of Business Research 66(7) 856-863. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.06.011.

  • El-Adly M. I. (2007). Shopping malls attractiveness: a segmentation approach. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 35(11) 936-950. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=27950831&lang=pl&site=eds-live&authtype=ip,uid.

  • Emerson Nieruchomości. (2008). Rynek powierzchni handlowych w Polsce 2008. Retrieved from www.emerson.pl.

  • Erdem O. Oumlil A. B. & Tuncalp S. (1999). Consumer values and the importance of store attributes. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 27(4) 137-144. doi:10.1108/09590559910268435.

  • Field A. P. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed.). Introducing statistical methods. London: Sage Publications.

  • Finn A. & Louviere J. J. (1996). Shopping center image consideration and choice: Anchor store contribution. Journal of Business Research 35(3) 241-251. doi:10.1016/0148-2963(95)00129-8.

  • Gasior M. & Skowron L. (2014). A multidimensional structure of shopping centre visit objectives - an european consumers’ perspective. International Journal of Business Economics and Management 1(10) 305-315.

  • Gehl J. (2010). Cities for people. Washington DC: Island Press.

  • Gehl J. (2013). How to Study Public Life. Washington: Island Press.

  • Gifford R. (2007). Environmental psychology: Principles and practice (4th ed). [S.l.]: Optimal Books.

  • Gillette H. (1985). The Evolution of the Planned Shopping Center in Suburb and City. Journal of the American Planning Association 51(4) 449-460. doi:10.1080/01944368508976833.

  • Goss J. (1993). The “Magic of the Mall”: An Analysis of Form Function and Meaning in the Contemporary Retail Built Environment. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 83(1) 18-47. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1993.tb01921.x.

  • Gruen V. & Smith L. (1960). Shopping towns USA: The planning of shopping centers. Progressive architecture library. New York: Reinhold.

  • Haiyan H. & Jasper C. (2004). Men and Women: A Comparison of Shopping Mall Behavior. Journal of Shopping Center Research 11(1-2) 114-131.

  • Hart C. Farrell A. M. Stachow G. Reed G. & Cadogan J. W. (2007). Enjoyment of the Shopping Experience: Impact on Customers’ Repatronage Intentions and Gender Influence. The Service Industries Journal 27(5) 583-604. doi:10.1080/02642060701411757.

  • Havik K. Teerds H. & Tielens G. (2013). Building atmosphere. OASE Journal for Architecture (91) 3-12. Retrieved from http://oasejournal.nl/en/Issues/91/Editorial.

  • Haynes J. & Talpade S. (1996). Does entertainment draw shoppers? The effects of entertainment centers on shopping behavior in malls. Journal of Shopping Center Research 3(2) 29-48.

  • Haytko D. L. & Baker J. (2004). It’s all at the mall: exploring adolescent girls’ experiences. Journal of Retailing 80(1) 67-83. doi:10.1016/j.jretai.2004.01.005.

  • Hirschman E. C. & Stampfl R. W. (1980). Roles of retailing in the diffusion of popular culture: Microperspectives. Journal of Retailing 56(1) 16-36.

  • Hoffman K. D. & Turley L. (2002). Atmospherics service encounters and consumer decision making: an integrative perspective. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 10(3) 33-47.

  • Jackson V. Stoel L. & Brantley A. (2011). Mall attributes and shopping value: Differences by gender and generational cohort. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 18(1) 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.jretconser.2010.08.002.

  • Jones M. A. Reynolds K. E. & Arnold M. J. (2006). Hedonic and utilitarian shopping value: Investigating differential effects on retail outcomes. Journal of Business Research 59(9) 974-981. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.03.006.

  • Kahneman D. (2012). Thinking fast and slow. London: Penguin.

  • Kalinowska B. (2008). Czekamy na centra handlowe piątej generacji. Retrieved from http://www.ekonomia24.pl/artykul/94191.html?p=1.

  • Kang J. & Kim Y.-K. (1999). Role of Entertainment in Cross-shopping and in the Revitalization of Regional Shopping Centers. Journal of Shopping Center Research 6(2) 41-71.

  • Kirkup M. & Rafiq M. (1994). Tenancy development in new shopping centres: implications for developers and retailers. The International Review of Retail Distribution and Consumer Research 4(3) 345-360. doi:10.1080/09593969400000025.

  • Kline P. (2000). The handbook of psychological testing (2nd ed). London New York: Routledge.

  • Kokoszkiewicz M. (2013). To galerie zabiły handel w centrum. Ulice musiały umrzeć. Gazeta Wyborcza. Retrieved from http://wroclaw.gazeta.pl/wroclaw/1,35771,14223916,To_galerie_zabily_handel_w_centrum__Ulice_musialy.html#TRrelSST#ixzz2vkZYPXPn.

  • Kotler P. (1973). Atmospherics as a Marketing Tool. Journal of Retailing 49(4) 48. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=4673250&lang=pl&site=eds-live&authtype=ip,uid.

  • Kotzé T. North E. Stols M. & Venter L. (2012). Gender differences in sources of shopping enjoyment. International Journal of Consumer Studies 36(4) 416-424.

  • Kuruvilla S. J. Joshi N. & Shah N. (2009). Do men and women really shop differently? An exploration of gender differences in mall shopping in India. International Journal of Consumer Studies 33(6) 715-723.

  • Lewicka M. (2008). Place attachment place identity and place memory: Restoring the forgotten city past. Journal of Environmental Psychology 28(3) 209-231. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2008.02.001.

  • Lorens P. (2005). Tematyzacja przestrzeni publicznej miasta. In B. Jałowiecki A. Majer & M. S. Szczepański (Eds.) Przemiany miasta. Wokół socjologii Aleksandra Wallisa (pp. 103-124). Warszawa: „Scholar”.

  • Makowski G. (2003). Świątynia konsumpcji: Geneza i społeczne znaczenie centrum handlowego (1st ed.). Obyczajeprawo i politykażycie codzienne. Warszawa: Trio.

  • Massicotte M.-C. Michon R. Chebat J.-C. Sirgy J. & Borges A. (2011). Effects of mall atmosphere on mall evaluation: Teenage versus adult shoppers. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 18(1) 74-80. doi:10.1016/j.jretconser.2010.10.001.

  • Mehta R. (2013). Understanding perceived retail crowding: A critical review and research agenda. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 20 642-649.

  • Mehta R. Sharma N. K. & Swami S. (2013). The impact of perceived crowding on consumers’ store patronage intentions: Role of optimal stimulation level and shopping motivation. Journal of Marketing Management 29(7-8) 812-835. doi:10.1080/0267257X.2012.729075.

  • Michon R. Chebat J.-C. & Turley L. (2005). Mall atmospherics: the interaction effects of the mall environment on shopping behavior. Journal of Business Research 58(5) 576-583. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2003.07.004.

  • Mortimer G. & Clarke P. (2011). Supermarket consumers and gender differences relating to their perceived importance levels of store characteristics. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 18(6) 575-585. doi:10.1016/j.jretconser.2011.08.007.

  • Ng C. F. (2003). Satisfying shoppers’ psychological needs: From public market to cyber-mall. Journal of Environmental Psychology 23(4) 439-455. doi:10.1016/S0272-4944(02)00102-0.

  • Niedomysl T. (2006). Migration and place attractiveness. Geografiska regionstudier: nr 68. Uppsala: Uppsala universitet.

  • Noble S. M. Griffith D. A. & Adjei M. T. (2006). Drivers of local merchant loyalty: Understanding the influence of gender and shopping motives. Journal of Retailing 82(3) 177-188. doi:10.1016/j.jretai.2006.05.002.

  • Oldenburg R. (1999). The great good place: Cafés coffee shops bookstores bars hair salons and other hangouts at the heart of a community. New York: Marlowe; Distributed by Publishers Group West.

  • Ooi J. T. & Sim L.-L. (2007). The magnetism of suburban shopping centers: do size and Cineplex matter? Journal of Property Investment & Finance 25(2) 111-135. doi:10.1108/14635780710733816.

  • Otto P. (2012). Targ? Nie to luksusowa galeria handlowa: bazary wypowiedziały wojnę supermarketom i dyskontom które zabierają im klientów. Dziennik Gazeta Prawna. Retrieved from http://forsal.pl/artykuly/608471,targ_nie_to_luksusowa_galeria_handlowa.html.

  • Pan Y. & Zinkhan G. M. (2006). Determinants of retail patronage: A meta-analytical perspective. Journal of Retailing 82(3) 229-243. doi:10.1016/j.jretai.2005.11.008.

  • Pietzsch M. (2012). World’s 10 biggest shopping malls. Retrieved from http://www.emporis.com/pdf/Pressrelease_20120207_ENG.pdf.

  • PropertyNews. (2013). Rekord w Silesia City Center: ponad 15 mln klientów w 2012 roku. Retrieved from http://www.propertynews.pl/centra-handlowe/rekord-wsilesia-city-center-ponad-15-mln-klientow-w-2012-roku,13922.html.

  • Raajpoot N. A. Sharma A. & Chebat J.-C. (2008). The role of gender and work status in shopping center patronage. Journal of Business Research 61(8) 825-833. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2007.09.009.

  • Rabiej J. (2008). Galeria handlowa – bazar park salon świątynia… Czasopismo Techniczne. Architektura. 15(6) 145-150.

  • Rayburn S. W. & Voss K. E. (2013). A model of consumer’s retail atmosphere perceptions. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 20(4) 400-407. doi:10.1016/j.jretconser.2013.01.012.

  • Reimers V. & Clulow V. (2009). Retail centres: it’s time to make them convenient. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 37(7) 541-562. doi:10.1108/09590550910964594.

  • Reynolds J. & Howard E. (2007). New shopping centres: is leisure the answer? International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 35(8) 661-672. doi:10.1108/09590550710758649.

  • Roy A. (1994). Correlates of mall visit frequency. Journal of Retailing 70(2) 139-161. doi:10.1016/0022-4359(94)90012-4.

  • Ruiz J.-P. Chebat J.-C. & Hansen P. (2004). Another trip to the mall: a segmentation study of customers based on their activities. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 11(6) 333-350. doi:10.1016/j.jretconser.2003.12.002.

  • Rzeczpospolita. (2013). Większość Polaków odwiedza centra handlowe w weekendy. Retrieved from http://www.ekonomia.rp.pl/artykul/1016473.html.

  • Schmitt B. (2003). Customer experience management: A revolutionary approach to connecting with your customers. New York: Wiley.

  • Shaw C. & Ivens J. (2005). Building great customer experiences (Rev. ed.). Beyond philosophy. Houndmills Basingstoke Hampshire New York: Palgrave.

  • Shim S. & Eastlick M. A. (1998). The hierarchical influence of personal values on mall shopping attitute and behavior. Journal of Retailing 74(1) 139-160.

  • Singh H. & Prashar S. (2013). Anatomy of shopping experience for malls in Mumbai: A confirmatory factor analysis approach. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. doi:10.1016/j.jretconser.2013.08.002.

  • Sit J. Merrilees B. & Birch D. (2003). Entertainment-seeking shopping centre patrons: the missing segments. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 31(2) 80-94. doi:10.1108/09590550310461985.

  • Spilková J. (2012). The birth of the Czech Mall enthusiast: The transition of shopping habits from utilitarian to leisure shopping. Geografie 117(1) 21-32. Retrieved from http://geography.cz/sbornik/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/gcgs012012_2spilkova.pdf.

  • Swamynathan R. Mansurali A. & Chandrasekhar U. (2013). Mall Mania: A Study of Factors Influencing Consumers’ Preference Towards Shopping Malls in Coimbatore City. IUP Journal of Marketing Management 12(4) 29-41. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=92605538&lang=pl&site=eds-live&authtype=ip,uid.

  • Swinyard W. R. (1998). Shopping mall customer values: the national mall shopper and the list of values. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 5(3) 167-172. doi:10.1016/S0969-6989(97)00023-4.

  • Telci E. E. (2013). High shopping mall patronage: is there a dark side? Quality & Quantity 47(5) 2517-2528. doi:10.1007/s11135-012-9668-5.

  • Teller C. (2008). Shopping streets versus shopping malls - determinants of agglomeration format attractiveness from the consumers’ point of view. The International Review of Retail Distribution and Consumer Research 18(4) 381-403. doi:10.1080/09593960802299452.

  • Teller C. & Reutterer T. (2008). The evolving concept of retail attractiveness: What makes retail agglomerations attractive when customers shop at them? Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 15(3) 127-143. doi:10.1016/j.jretconser.2007.03.003.

  • Thompson K. E. & Chen Y. L. (1998a). Personal values underlying women’s perceptions of fashion store images. Cranfield working paper: no 19/98: Cranfield School of Management.

  • Thompson K. E. & Chen Y. L. (1998b). Retail store image: a means-end approach. Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science 4(6) 161.

  • Torres I. M. Summers T. A. & Belleau B. D. (2001). Men’s shopping satisfaction and store preferences. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 8(4) 205-212. doi:10.1016/S0969-6989(00)00024-2.

  • Turley L. & Milliman R. E. (2000). Atmospheric Effects on Shopping Behavior. Journal of Business Research 49(2) 193-211. doi:10.1016/S0148-2963(99)00010-7.

  • Underhill P. (2004). The call of the mall. New York: Simon & Schuster.

  • Uzzell D. (1995). The Myth of The Indoor City. Journal of Environmental Psychology 15(4) 299-310. doi:10.1006/jevp.1995.0026.

  • Wagner T. (2007). Shopping motivation revised: a means-end chain analytical perspective. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 35(7) 569-582. doi:10.1108/09590550710755949.

  • Wakefield K. L. & Baker J. (1998). Excitement at the mall: Determinants and effects on shopping response. Journal of Retailing 74(4) 515-539. doi:10.1016/S0022-4359(99)80106-7.

  • Whyte W. H. (1980). The social life of small urban spaces. New York: Project for Public Spaces.

  • Wit R. (2010). Ulica Świdnicka umiera. Retrieved from http://www.tuwroclaw.com/wiadomosci,ulica-swidnicka-umiera,wia5-3266-3421.html.

  • Witek J. Grzesiuk A. & Karwowski J. (2008). Ulice handlowe w centrum miasta - nowe spojrzenie wobec konkurencji centrów handlowych. Handel Wewnętrzny 2008(3) 9-16. Retrieved from http://bazekon.icm.edu.pl/bazekon/element/bwmeta1.element.ekon-element-000153253400.

  • Wolf K. (2003). Retail and Urban Nature: Creating a Consumer Habitat. Population and Environmental Psychology Bulletin 29(1) 1-6. Retrieved from http://www.plants-in-buildings.com/documents/symposium-wolf.pdf.

  • Wooten D. B. & Reed A. (1998). Informational Influence and the Ambiguity of Product Experience: Order Effects on the Weighting of Evidence. Journal of Consumer Psychology 7(1) 79-99. doi:10.1207/s15327663jcp0701_04.

  • Zangwill N. (2013). Aesthetic Judgment. In Edward N. Zalta (Ed.) The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2013rd ed.). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2013/entries/aesthetic-judgment/.

Search
Journal information
Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 830 426 7
PDF Downloads 486 291 3