Polish Managers’ Leadership Styles: Developing and Validating the Managerial Styles of a Leading Questionnaire

Open access

Abstract

This article develops a new measure for assessing leadership styles. A six-factor solution was identified in exploratory factor analysis (n = 139) and then was verified in confirmatory factor analysis (n = 477). The final questionnaire encompasses 51 items grouped into six dimensions: structuring, autocratic, participative, Machiavellian, rewarding, and distant. The scales’ internal consistency range from.61 to.79. Internal validity was initially supported by intercorrelations among six leadership styles. External validity was verified through correlation analysis between leadership styles and personality traits of the Costa & McCrae (1995) five-factor model.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Ayman R. & Korabik K. (2010). Leadership. Why gender and culture matters. American Psychologist 65(3) 157-170. doi: 10.1037/a0018806.

  • Barrick M. R. & Mount M. K. (1991). The Big Five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology 44 1-26. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.1991.tb00688.x.

  • Barrick M. R. Mount M. K. & Judge T. A. (2001). Personality and performance at the beginning of the new millennium: What do we know and where do we go next? International Journal of Selection and Assessment 9(1/2) 9-30. doi: 10.1111/1468 -2389.00160.

  • Bass B. M. (1990). Bass and Stodgill’s handbook of leadership. Theory research and managerial applications. New York NY: The Free Press.

  • Bass B. M. & Bass R. (2008). The Bass handbook of leadership. Theory research and managerial applications. New York NY: The Free Press.

  • Bass B. M. & Riggio R. E. (2006). Transformational leadership. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.

  • Blake R. R. & Mouton J. S. (1982). A comparative analysis of situationalism and 99 management by principle. Organizational Dynamics 10(4) 20-43. doi: 10.1016/0090-2616(82)90027-4.

  • Bono J. E. & Judge T. A. (2004). Personality and transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology 89(5) 910-910. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.89.5.901.

  • Brown T.A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York NY: The Guilford Press.

  • Brown M. E. Trevino L. K. & Harrison D. A. (2005). Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processess 97 117-134.

  • Byrne B.M. (2001). Structural quation modeling with AMOS. Basic concepts applications and programming. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

  • Cole D. A. (1987). Utility of Confirmatory factor analysis in test validation research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 55(4) 584-594. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.55.4.584.

  • Costa P. T. Jr. & McCrae R. R. (1995). Domains and Facet: Hierarchical Personality Assessment Using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment 64(1) 21-50. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa6401_2.

  • Costello A. B. & Osborne J. W. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment Research & Evaluation 10(7) 1-9. Retrieved from http://pareonline.net/pdf/v10n7.pdf.

  • Cronbach L. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika 16 297-334. Retrieved from http://psych.colorado.edu.

  • Den Hartog D. N. Van Muijen J. J. & Koopman P. L. (1997). Transactional versus transformational leadership: an analysis or the MLQ. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 70 19-34. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8325.1997.tb00628.x.

  • DeRue D. S. Nahrgang J. D. Wellman N. & Humphrey S. E. (2011). Trait and behavioral theories of leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Personnel Psychology 64(1) 7-52. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2010.01201.x.

  • Edwards J. E. Rode L. G. & Ayman R. (1989). The construct validity of scales from four leadership questionnaires. The Journal of General Psychology 116(2) 171-181.

  • Einarsen S. Aasland M. S. & Skogstad A. (2007). Destructive leadership behavior: A definition and conceptual model. Leadership Quarterly 18(3) 207-216. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.03.002.

  • Fiedler F. E. (1971). Validation and extension of the contingency model of leadership effectiveness: a review of empirical findings. Psychological Bulletin 76(2) 128-148. doi: 10.1037/h0031454.

  • Fleishman E.A. (1953). The description of supervisory behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology 37(1) 1-6.

  • Heinitz K. Liepmann D. & Felfe J. (2005). Examining the factor structure of the MLQ: recommendation for a reduced set of factors. European Journal of Psychological Assessment 21(3) 182-190. doi: 10.1027/1015-5759.21.3.182.

  • Hersey P. Blanchard K. H. & Johnson D. E. (2001). Management of organizational behavior. Leading human resources. Upper Saddle River NJ: Prentice Hall.

  • Hogan R. & Hogan J. (2001). Assessing leadership: A view from the dark side. International Journal of Selection and Assessment 9(1-2) 40-51. doi: 10.1111/1468-2389.00162.

  • House R. J. & Aditya R.N. (1997). The social scientific study of leadership: Quo vadis? Journal of Management 23(3) 409-473. doi: 10.1177/014920639702300306.

  • Jones A. P. James L. R. & Bruni J. R. (1975). Perceived leadership behavior and employee confidence in the leader as moderated by job involvement. Journal of Applied Psychology 60(1) 146-149. doi: 10.1037/h0076359.

  • Judge T. A. & Bono J. E. (2000). Five-factor model of personality and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology 85(5) 751-765. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.85.5.751.

  • Judge T. A. Bono J. E. Ilies R. & Gerhardt M. W. (2002). Personality and leadership: a qualitative and quantitative review. Journal of Applied Psychology 87(4) 765-780. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.89.3.542.

  • Judge T. A. Piccolo R. F. & Illies R. (2004). The forgotten ones? The validity of consideration and initiating structure in leadership research. Journal of Applied Psychology 89(5) 36-51.

  • Kaiser R. B. & Hogan J. (2011). Personality leader behavior and overdoing it. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research 63(4) 219-242. doi:10.1037/ a0026795.

  • Kanste O. Miettunen J. & Kyngäs H. (2006). Psychometric properties of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. JAN Research Methodology 57(2) 201-212. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.04100.x.

  • Kline R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York NY: The Guilford Press. Konarski R. (2009). Modele równań strukturalnych. Teoria i praktyka. [Structural equations models. Theory and practice]. Warszawa Poland: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

  • Kouzes J. M. & Posner B. Z. (2003). The leadership challenge. San Francisco CA: Jossey-Bass.

  • Lewin K. Lippit R. & White R. K. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates. Journal of Social Psychology S.P.S.S.I. Bulletin 1 271-299.

  • Loewenthal K. M. (2001). An introduction to psychological tests and scales. Hove East Essex: Psychology Press Ltd.

  • Lord R. G. & Emrich C. G. (2000). Thinking outside the box by looking inside the box: Extending the cognitive revolution in leadership research. Leadership Quarterly 11(4) 551-579. doi: 10.1016/S1048-9843(00)00060-6.

  • McCrae R. R. & Costa P. T. Jr. (1997). A new Big Five. Personality trait structure as a human universal. American Psychologist 52(5) 509-516.

  • Misumi J. & Peterson M. F. (1985). The performance-maintenance (PM) theory of leadership: review of Japanese research program. Administrative Science Quarterly 30 198-223.

  • Neider L. L. & Schriesheim C. A. (2011). The Authentic Leadership Inventory (ALI): Development and empirical tests. The Leadership Quarterly 22 1146-1164. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.09.008.

  • Ployhart R. E. Holtz B. C. & Bliese P. D. (2002). Longitudinal data analysis: Applications of random coefficient modelling of leadership research. The Leadership Quarterly 13(4) 455-486. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(02)00122-4.

  • Ployhart R. E. Lim B. C. & Chan K. Y. (2001). Exploring relations between typical and maximum performance ratings and the five factor model of personality. Personnel Psychology 54(4) 809-843. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2001.tb00233.x.

  • Shamir B. House R. J. & Arthur M. (1993). The motivational effects of charismatic leadership: a self-concept based theory. Organizational Science 4(4) 577-594. doi: 10.1287/orsc.4.4.577.

  • Shaw J. B. Erickson A. & Harvey M. (2011). A method for measuring destructive leadership and identifying types of destructive leaders in organizations. The Leadership Quarterly 22(4) 575-590. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.05.001.

  • Smith P. B. Misumi J. Tayeb M. Peterson M. & Bond M. (1989). On the generality of leadership style measures across cultures. Journal of Occupational Psychology 62(2) 97-109. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8325.1989.tb00481.x.

  • Steele J. P. (2011). Antecedents and consequences of toxic leadership in the U.S. Army: A two-year review and recommended solutions. (Technical report 2011-3). Fort Leavenworth KS: Center for Army Leadership.

  • Stogdill R.M. (1974). Handbook of leadership. A survey of theory and research. New York NY: The Free Press.

  • Tannenbaum R. & Schmidt W. H. (1958). How to choose a leadership pattern. Harvard Business Review 36(2) 95-101.

  • Tepper B. J. (2000). Consequences of abusive supervision. Academy of Management Journal 43(2) 178-190. doi: 10.2307/1556375.

  • Tracy L. (1987). Consideration and initiating structure: are they basic dimensions of leader behavior? Social Behavior and Personality 15(1) 21-33.

  • Van Dierendonck D. & Nuijten I. (2011). The servant leadership survey: development and validation of a multidimensional measure. Journal of Business and Psychology 26 249-267. doi: 10.1007/s10869-010-9194-1.

  • Weissenberg P. Kavanagh M. J. (1972). The independence of initiating structure and consideration: a review of the evidence. Personnel Psychology 25(1) 119-130. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.1972.tb01095.x.

  • Worthington R. L. & Whittaker T. A. (2006). Scale development research: A content analysis and recommendations for best practices. The Counseling Psychologist 34(6) 806-838. doi: 10.1177/0011000006288127.

  • Zaccaro S. J. Kemp C. & Bader P. (2004). Leaders traits and attributes. In J. Antonakis A. T. Cianciolo & R.J. Sternberg (Eds.) The nature of leadership (pp. 101-124). Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications Inc.

  • Zawadzki B. Strelau J. Szczepaniak P. & Śliwińska M. (1998). Inwentarz Osobowości NEO-FFI Costy & McCrae. Adaptacja Polska. Podręcznik. [NEO-FFI Inventory of Costa and McCrae. Polish adaptation. Manual]. Warszawa Poland: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.

  • Yukl G. Gordon A. & Taber T. (2002). A hierarchical taxonomy of leadership behavior: integrating half-century behavior research. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies 9(1) 15-32.

Search
Journal information
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 602 378 6
PDF Downloads 188 129 2