Aim. The aim of the study was to analyze the awareness of testicular cancer and prevention behaviors among male residents of the Lubelskie Province.
Material and methods. The study was conducted in 2015 and involved 131 men aged 17 to 38. A questionnaire designed by the authors was used as a research tool. The obtained results were analyzed statistically and the Chi2 test was used.
Results. Using a 0-5 scale, every fourth participant assessed their knowledge as 0, while only 7% assessed it as 5. The average level was 3.1 among students of medicine, while among students of other faculties it was 1.6. The Internet was cited as the most popular source of information about testicular cancer, while the healthcare staff was ranked as the last one. As much as 83.2% of men from the study group had never learnt how to perform testicular self-examination properly. Medical students were more likely to carry out this procedure regularly - 32%, compared to non-medical students - 12%.
Conclusions. The awareness of testicular cancer among the population of young men from the Lubelskie Province is insufficient, which is the main cause of their failure to perform regular self-examinations. The role of general practitioners is too little, despite the fact that most males consider them as the most reliable source of the information. Implementation of education and training programs for prevention of testicular cancer is required.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Curado MP Edwards B Shin HR et al. Cancer incidence in five continents. IX. IARC Press. France: 2007; 160.
2. Engholm G Ferlay J Christensen N et al. NORDCAN--a Nordic tool for cancer information planning quality control and research. Acta Oncol. 2010;49(5): 725-736.
3. Nigam M Aschebrook-Kilfoy B Shikanov S et al. Increasing incidence of testicular cancer in the United States and Europe between 1992 and 2009. World Journal of Urology. 2015;33(5): 623-631.
4. Huyghe E Matsuda T Thonneau P. Increasing incidence of testicular cancer worldwide: a review. Journal of Urology. 2003;170(1): 5-11.
5. Bethesda. National Cancer Institute Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Health Professional Version 2015 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK65967/ [accesed: 26.02.2016]
6. Lip SZ Murchison LE Cullis PS et al. A meta-analysis of the risk of boys with isolated cryptorchidism developing testicular cancer in later life. Archives of Diseases in Childhood. 2013;98(1): 20-26.
7. Forman D Oliver RT Brett AR et al. Familial testicular cancer: a report of the UK family register estimation of risk and a HLA class 1 sib-pair analysis. British Journal of Cancer. 1992;65(2): 255-262.
8. Boyle P Zaridze DG. Risk factors for prostate and testicular cancer. European Journal of Cancer. 1993;29A: 1048-1055.
9. Testicular Cancer Overview. American Cancer Society. http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003079-pdf.pdf [accesed: 2016-02-07].
10. Braga IC Cabral J Louro N et al. Testicular Cancer Awareness and Knowledge: Is It the Same? Exploratory Study in a Mixed-Gender Population. Journal of Cancer Education. 2015:1-7.
11. Wanzer MB1 Foster SC Servoss T et al. Educating young men about testicular cancer: support for a comprehensive testicular cancer campaign. Journal of Health Communication. 2014;19(3): 303-320.
12. Moore RA Topping A. Young men’s knowledge of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination: a lost opportunity? European Journal of Cancer Care. 1999;8(3): 137-142.
13. Handy P Sankar KN. Testicular self-examination - Knowledge of men attending a large genito urinary medicine clinic. Health Education Journal. 2008;67: 9-15.
14. Evans EC Steptoe A Wardle J. Testicular selfexamination: change in rates of practice in European university students from 13 countries over a 10-year period. The Journal of Men’s Health & Gender. 2006;3: 368-337.
15. Casey RG Grainger R Butler M et al. Scrotal signs and symptoms in the general population the value of testis self-examination and the pitfalls of a scrotal screening programme: is the two-week rule relevant? World Journal of Urology. 2011;29: 387-391.
16. Öztürk Ç Fleer J Hoekstra HJ et al. Delay in Diagnosis of Testicular Cancer; A Need for Awareness Programs. PLoS One. 2015;10(11).
17. Rovito MJ. Performing Testicular Self-Examination Driving Automobiles and Anxiety: What Is the Logical Link? American Journal of Men’s Health. 2016. pii: 1557988316635048. [Epub ahead of print].
18. Ward KD Vander Weg MW Read MC et al. Testicular cancer awareness and self examination among adolescent males in a community - based youth organization. Preventive Medicine. 2005;41: 386-398.
19. Wortel RC Ghidey Alemayehu W et al. Orchiectomy and radiotherapy for stage I-II testicular seminoma: a prospective evaluation of short-term effects on body image and sexual function. The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 2015;12(1): 210-218.