The problem of experiencing anxiety among divers. Experiment in hyperbaric exposure conditions

Open access


The aim of the article is a review of psychological literature relating to the problem of anxiety in divers, where an emphasis is placed on the degree of mental adaptation of the individual to the underwater environment, primarily highlighting the trait of anxiety and the neuroticism of a person involved in a specific type of diving. The article presents selected reports from all over the world regarding research on anxiety in divers. Treating a high level of the indicator of anxiety as a predictor of panic anxiety reveals the importance of this trait in predicting the risk of an occurrence of diving accidents during the operation under water. In the own research presented in the article, the results on the levels of anxiety as a trait and a state in divers taking part in hyperbaric exposures indicate the fact that the majority of the examined divers have low levels of anxiety both as a trait and a state, which most probably indicates the good psychological condition of the examined divers.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Buczyński A Buczyński J Kocur J Roztowski J Olszański R. The Analysis of Psychological Variables Verifying the Candidates for the Diver Profession. Polish Hyperbaric Research 2004: 1 (9): 4-11 p.4;

  • 2. Bielec G Błaszkowska J Waade B. The phenomenon of axiety in scuba divers. Polish Hyperbaric Medicine and Technology 2006: 4 (17): 15-20;

  • 3. Biersner RJ Larocco JM. Personality and demographic variables related to individual responsiveness to diving stress. Undersea Biomed Res. 1987; 14(1): 67–73;

  • 4. Coetzee N. Personality profiles of recreational scuba divers. Afr J Phys Health Educ Recreat Dance. 2013; 16(4): 568–579;

  • 5. Colodro Plaza J Garcés de los Fayos Ruiz EJ López García JJ et al. Prediction of human adaptation and performance in underwater environments. Psicothema. 2014; 26(3): 336–342 doi: 10.7334/psicothema2014.5 accessed on 11.01.2019;

  • 6. Van Wijk CH. Sensation-seeking personality traits of navy divers. Diving Hyperb Med. 2007; 37: 10–15. 23;

  • 7. Biersner RJ Cameron BJ. Betting preferences and personality characteristics of Navy divers. Aerosp Med. 1970; 41(11): 1289–1291;

  • 8. Van Wijk C Meintjes WAJ. Mental Health and Personality Functioning of Naval Specialists Working in Extreme Environments. Military Psychology. 2018; 29(6): 601–614 doi: 10.1037/mil0000185 accessed on 10.01.2019;

  • 9. Musa G Seng W Thirumoorthi T et al. The Influence of Scuba Divers’ Personality Experience and Demographic Profile on their Underwater Behavior. Tourism in Marine Environments. 2011; 7(1): 1–14 doi: 10.3727/154427310x12826772784757. Accessed on 13.01.2019;

  • 10. Van Wijk CH. The use of Spielberger’s State-Trait Personality Inventory (trait anxiety subscale) with naval subaquatic specialists. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2014; 27(6): 959–966 doi: 10.2478/s13382-014-0321-5 accessed on 13.01.2019;

  • 11. Eichhorn L Leyk D. Diving Medicine in Clinical Practice. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International 2015: 112: 147-158;

  • 12. Dębski A Filipek B. Anxiety vs. diving accidents. Polish Hyperbaric Research 2005: 3 (12): 27-29;

  • 13. Morgan WP Raglin JS O’Connor PJ. Trait anxiety predicts panic behavior in beginning scuba students. International Journal of Sports Medicine 2004: 4: 314-322;

  • 14. Raglin S Stegner J. Psychobiological aspects of panic in SCBA and SCUBA. Int J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2005; 4: 446–454;

  • 15. Van Wijk C. Personality profiles of divers: integrating results across studies. International Maritime Health 2018;69(4):297-303 DOI: 10.5603/IMH.2018.0046 dostęp z dnia 11.01.2019;

  • 16. Ryckman R. M. (2007). Theories of personality. Belmont CA: Wadsworth Pub Co;

  • 17. Costa P. T. J. & McCrae R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa FL: Psychological Assessment Resources;

  • 18. Musa G. Seng W. T. Thirumoorthi T. & Abessi M. (2011). The influence of scuba divers’ personality experience and demographic profile on their underwater behavior. Tourism in Marine Environments 7(1) 1-14;

  • 19. Howard D. R. (1976). Multivariate relationships between leisure activities and personality. Research Quarterly 47 228-237;

  • 20. Colvard DF Colvard LY. A study of panic in recreational scuba divers. Undersea J. 2003;Q1:40–4;

  • 21. Wrześniewski K Sosnowski T Jaworowska A et al. STAI Inventory of Anxiety Trait and State. Polish adaptation of STAI. Warsaw Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych 2011: 6-7;

  • 22. Bielec G Błaszkowska J Waade B. The phenomenon of anxiety in scuba divers. Polish Hyperbaric Medicine and Technology 2006: 4 (17): 15-20;

  • 23. Morgan WP. Anxiety and panic in recreational scuba divers. Sports Med. 1995: 20 (6): 398-421;

  • 24. Koltyn KF Shake CL Morgan WP. Interaction of exercise water temperature and protective apparel on body awareness and anxiety. International Journal of Sport Psychology 1993: 3: 297-305;

  • 25. Alkan N Akış T. Psychological Characteristics of Free Diving Athletes: A Comparative Study. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science 2013: 3 (15): 150-157;

  • 26. Abraini JH1 Ansseau M Bisson T de Mendoza JL Therme P. Personality patterns of anxiety during occupational deep dives with long-term confinement in hyperbaric chamber. J Clin Psychol. 1998 Oct;54(6):825-30;

  • 27. Curley M. D.Berghage T. E.Raymond L W.Sode JL Carolyn. Emotional stability during a chamber saturation dive to 49.5 atmospheres absolute. Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 64(5) Oct 1979 548-557.

Journal information
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 39 39 3
PDF Downloads 23 23 6