Diabetes is an “epidemic of the 21st century” and it is estimated that in 2011 6.7% of Poland’s population suffered from diabetes, one quarter of which was unaware of the disease. Such a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus results in an increasing number of physicians being confronted with the problem of qualifying patient with diabetes to partake in amateur sports, including diving. This publication presents the most important information concerning risk assessment, admission of diabetic patients to amateur diving and some proposed protocols of management before and during sport practice.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Zalecenia PTD. 2017 Guidelines on the management of diabetic patients. A position of Diabetes Poland. Clin Diabet. 2017;6 Suppl. A: A1–A80;
2. Rutkowski M Bandosz P Czupryniak L Gaciong Z Solnica B Jasiel-Wojculewicz H et al. Prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Poland--the NATPOL 2011 Study. Diabet Med. 2014 Dec;31(12):1568-71;
3. Hazel J. SCUBA diving: ADS position statement. 1994;
4. Edge CJ St Leger Dowse M Bryson P. Scuba diving with diabetes mellitus--the UK experience 1991-2001. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2005 Jan- Feb;32(1):27-37;
5. Johnson R. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and recreational scuba diving in Australia. Diving Hyperb Med. 2016 Sep;46(3):181-5;
6. Edge CJ Grieve AP Gibbons N O’Sullivan F Bryson P. Control of blood glucose in a group of diabetic scuba divers. Undersea Hyperb Med. 1997 Sep;24(3):201-7;
7. Adolfsson P Ornhagen H Jendle J. The benefits of continuous glucose monitoring and a glucose monitoring schedule in individuals with type 1 diabetes during recreational diving. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2008 Sep;2(5):778-84;
8. Bonomo M Cairoli R Verde G Morelli L Moreo A Grottaglie MD et al. Safety of recreational scuba diving in type 1 diabetic patients: the Deep Monitoring programme. Diabetes Metab. 2009 Apr;35(2):101-7;
9. Dear Gde L Pollock NW Uguccioni DM Dovenbarger J Feinglos MN Moon RE. Plasma glucose responses in recreational divers with insulinrequiring diabetes. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2004 Fall;31(3):291-301;
10. Adolfsson P Ornhagen H Jendle J. Accuracy and reliability of continuous glucose monitoring in individuals with type 1 diabetes during recreational diving. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2009 Aug;11(8):493-7;
11. Lormeau B Sola A Tabah A Chiheb S Dufaitre L Thurninger O et al. Blood glucose changes and adjustments of diet and insulin doses in type 1 diabetic patients during scuba diving (for a change in French regulations). Diabetes Metab. 2005 Apr;31(2):144-51;
12. Pollock NW Uguccioni DM Dear G Bates S Albushies TM Prosterman SA. Plasma glucose response to recreational diving in novice teenage divers with insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2006 Mar-Apr;33(2):125-33;
13. Harrison D Lloyd-Smith R Khazei A Hunte G Lepawsky M. Controversies in the medical clearance of recreational scuba divers: updates on asthma diabetes mellitus coronary artery disease and patent foramen ovale. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2005 Oct;4(5):275-81;
14. Jendle J Adolfsson P Ornhagen H. Swedish recommendations on recreational diving and diabetes mellitus. Diving Hyperb Med. 2012 Dec;42(4):231-3;
15. Johnson R. A day in the life of a diabetic diver: the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society/Divers Alert Network protocol for diving withdiabetes in action. Diving Hyperb Med. 2016 Sep;46(3):181-5.