Suicidal Deaths an a Water Environment

Open access


Unexpected, abrupt death is always a great tragedy, both for a victim, as well as, for their family, friends, society or even country. However, death as a result of a suicide always seems to be unnecessary and difficult to accept by relatives. Every 40 seconds someone dies on the globe due to a kind of an auto-destruction act. Out of all suicides, the biggest group are adult men, frequently with mental disorders, who commit suicide by hanging themselves. The only suicide method where women are almost on the par with men is drowning (by many authors referred to as death by drowning).

1. [accessed on 13.11.2016];

2. Self-directed violence World Health Organization 2002 [accessed on 13.11.2016];

3. Popławski H.; Leading towards suicide. Social pathology - prevention. 1981 (X), p. 52;

4. Sygit B.; Felony as a crime category. Legal - penal and political - criminal study. Toruń 2005, p. 256;

5. Hołyst B.; Suicidology. PWN, Warsaw 2002,pp. 107-112;

6. Czekiera Cz.; Attitudes towards life and death vis-a-vis the problem of suicides [in:] Piechrzała K.; Czekiera Cz.; Man and social pathologies, Ed. Adam Marszałek, Toruń 2009, pp. 196-197;

7. Jakliński A.; Marek Z.; Forensic medicine for lawyers, Zakamycze, Cracow 1996, pp. 101-102;

8. Hołyst B.; Objectives and tasks of suicidology, [in:] Suicide, Hołyst B., Staniszek M., Binczycka-Anholcer M., (ed.), PTHP, Warsaw 2002, p. 31;

9. Bednarski L.; Urbanek A.; Suicide - forensic and pedagogical perspective Impuls, Cracow 2012, p. 18;

10. Raszeja S.; Nasiłowski W.; Markiewicz J.; Forensic medicine. Student textbook, PZWL, Warsaw 1993, p. 124;

11. Hołyst B.; On the edge of life and death. Criminological and victimological study, Kodeks Sp. z o.o., Warsaw 1996, p. 69;

12. Bednarski L.; Urbanek A.; Suicide - forensic and pedagogical perspective Impuls, Cracow 2012, p. 18;

13. Kaszubowski R.; Świerczewski J.; Suicides in Poland at the dawn of the 21st century, phenomenon etiology and symptomatology [in:] Suicide, Hołyst B., Staniszek M., Binczycka-Anholcer M., (ed.), PTHP, Warsaw 2002, pp.72-73;

14. Stukan J.; Toxic psychologic and psychiatry. Depression and suicide, Prometeusz, Opole 2010, pp. 26-27;

15. Avramidis S., Drowning in Ancient Greek History and Mythology, International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 2009 (3), pp. 422-431;

16. Corcoran P.; Reulbach U.; Perry I.J.; Arensman E.; Suicide and deliberate self harm in older Irish adults. 2010, International psychogeriatrics / IPA, 22 (8), p.1327-1336;

17. Stemberga V.; Bralic M.; Coklo M.; Cuculic D.; Bosnar A.; Suicidal drowning in Southwestern Croatia: a 25-year review. The American journal of forensic medicine and pathology, 2010, 31 (1), p.52-54;

18. Nowers M.P.; Suicide by drowning in the bath. Medicine, science, and the law. 1999, 39 (4), p.349-353

19. [accessed on 13.11.2016];

20. McIntosh J.I.; Epidemiology of adolescent suicide in the Unites States, [in:] Maris R.W.; Canetto S.S.; McIntosh J.L.; and Silverman M.M.; (ed.), Review of Suicidology, New York, 2000, p. 3-33;

21. McWhirter J.J.; McWhirter B.T.; McWhirter A.M.; McWhirter E.H.; Threatened youth, Parpamedia, 2008, p.190-191 (Polish version);

22. O’Connor R.; Sheehy N.; To understand a suicide, Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne, Gdańsk 2002, p. 34;

23. Charlton J.; Kelly S.; Dunnell K.; Evans B.; Jenkins R.; Suicide deaths in England and Wales; Trends in factors associated with suicide deaths. Population Trends, No. 71, p. 34-42;

24. Purandare N.; Voshaar R.C.; Rodway C.; Bickley H.; Burns A.; Kapur N.; Suicide in dementia: 9-year national clinical survey in England and Wales. The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science, 2009, 194 (2), p. 175-180;

25. Salib E.; Dementia: suicide by drowning. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2009 Jun.194(6), p. 562-563;

26. Kernberg O.F.; Suicide prevention for psychoanalytic institutes and societies. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 2012. 60(4), p. 707-19.

Journal Information


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 152 140 9
PDF Downloads 88 82 5