The problem of oxygen toxicity, and its effect on the nervous system, is an important topic with regard to the application of oxygen and breathing mixes in the pursuit of diving, as well as in the light of the striking synergy between the effects of oxygen and ionising radiation. Studies on the level of lipid peroxides were performed on rat brains. The animals were subjected to exhaustive physical strain in a pressure chamber and oxygen at the pressure between 0-3 atm for the period of 25-60 minutes. Parallel research was conducted on rested animals. Following the dissection, the brain was homogenised and the levels of lipid peroxides were determined using the Wollman method with TBA. In animals subjected to physical effort over the specified time, no deviations in the levels of lipid peroxides were observed in comparison to the control group. An increase in lipid peroxide level was noted in rats manifesting oxygen toxicity symptoms. On the basis of the above findings, the authors presume that the growth of lipid peroxides in the brain in cases subjected to hyperbaric oxygenation should be recognised as a far-reaching harmful effect of oxygen, occurring after enzymatic damage and the violation of cellular antioxidant protection. At low oxygen overpressures, no deviations in the levels of lipid peroxides were noted as compared to the control group.