Sick boat syndrome

Open access


Many pathogenic micro-organisms are likely to attack passengers of cruise ships and other vessels or travel between continents as a peculiar type of a “stowaway”. The epidemiological tests conducted since 1987 with regard to watercraft led to the coining of a term known as the Sick Boat Syndrome (SBS). The main illnesses encountered on watercraft include gastrointestinal diseases (foodborne) and Legionellosis. Additionally, the ventilation and airconditioning systems of old commercial ships (the so-called Tramps) constitute a real technical challenge. Conditioned air (with removed undesired odour and micro-organisms) should constitute ca. 25% of circulating air. In practice this situation is not typical for vessels of this class. Unclean air poses a real hazard for the crew.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Beware ‘sick-building syndrome’. The deadliest pollutants of all may be the ones you breathe at home or at work. Carey J. Hager M. King P. Newsweek 1985 Jan 7. 105:58-60.

  • 2. The Diagnosis of Sick House Syndrome: the Contribution of Diagnostic Criteria and Determination of Chemicals in an Indoor Environment. Miyajima E. Tsunoda M. Sugiura Y. Hoshi K. Kido T. Sakamoto Y. Sakabe K. Aizawa Y. Tokai J. Exp. Clin. Med. 2015 Jul. 40:69-75.

  • 3. Sick building syndrome (SBS) and sick house syndrome (SHS) in relation to psychosocial stress at work in the Swedish workforce. Runeson-Broberg R. Norbäck D. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 2013 Nov. 86:915-22.

  • 4. Alan. Agresti: Categorical Data Analysis. Wiley-Interscience New York 2002. ISBN 0-471-36093-7.

  • 5. Outbreak of respiratory illness on board a ship cruising to ports in southern Europe and northern Africa. Christenson B. Lidin-Janson G. Kallings I. J. Infect 1987 May. 14:247-54.

  • 6. Epidemiology of gastroenteritis on Cruise Ships 2001-2004. Cramer E.H. Blanton C.J. Blanton L.N. Vaughan G.H. Bopp C.A. Forney D.L. Am. J. Prev. Med. 2006;30(3):252-257.

  • 7. Epidemic infectious gastrointestinal illness aboard U.S. navy ships deployed to the Middle East during peacetime operations-2000-2001. Riddle M.S. Smoak B.L. Thornton S.S. Bresee J.S. Faix D.J. Putnam S.D. BMC Gastroenterology 2006 6:9 doi:10.1m186/1471-230X/6/9.

  • 8. WHO-Fact Sheet N0 269:Ship sanitation and health 2002/19/02.

  • 9. Outbreak of Acute gastroenteritis Associated with Nowalk-Like Viruses Among British Military Personnel. Brown D. Gray J. MacDonald P. Green A. Morgan D. Christopher G. Glass R. MMWR Weekly20025122477-479.

  • 10. WHO report on Infectious Diseases1999 Geneva chapter 13.

  • 11. Gastoneterities rafters-USA(Grand Canyon). 2002.11.02.

  • 12. Legionellosis cruise ship-UK (Scotland).; 1998.06.29.

  • 13. Collective report on the incidence of Legionellosis in 17 member states of the EU Lewer F. Joseph C.A. Eurosurveillance20016453-60.

  • 14. Legionellosis-Norway; 2001.08.31.

  • 15. Legionellosis uptade 200208.16.

  • 16. Cruise-Ship-Associated legionnaires Disease November 2003-May 2004. MMWR November 18 2005/54(45);1153-1155.

  • 17. World Health Organization Meeting of the informal Transportation Working group to develop guidance for implementation of IHR(2005) at points of entry Hosted by the International Civil Avisation Organization(ICAO) Montreal CanadaGeneva 1 June 200.

  • 18. World Health Organization 2nd Meeting of the informal Transportation Working Group to develop guidance for implementation of IHR (2005) at points of entry. British Columbia Institute of Technology Vancouver Canada 29 Nov. - 1 Dec. 2006 Geneva 3 January 2007.

Journal information
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 200 131 2
PDF Downloads 99 62 1