The Analysis of the Chemical Composition of Precipitation During the Driest Year from the Last Decade

Open access

Abstract

In order to investigate the precipitation chemistry, studies were carried out from January 2013 to December 2013 in Odorheiu Secuiesc and Miercurea Ciuc, Eastern Carpathians, Romania. During a period of eleven years (2006 – 2016), 2013 was the driest year. The rainwater samples were analyzed for pH, major anions and cations. HCO3 concentrations were calculated based on the empirical relationship between pH and HCO3. NH4+, Ca2+, SO42− were the dominant ions in precipitation at both sites. The pH values varied from 6.75 to 7.46 Miercurea Ciuc, and from 6.69 to 7.67 in Odorheiu Secuiesc. The neutralization was mainly brought by Ca2+ and NH4+. Estimated ratios of sea-salt fraction (SSF), non-sea-salt fraction (NSSF), and results from Spearman’s rank correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), showed that the acidic ions (SO42−, NO3) were derived from anthropogenic activities, NH4+ from soil fertilization, while Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ originated from terrestrial source. These influence the precipitations ionic content, especially during droughts. Spatial variations and the rim effect of the Eastern Carpathians on precipitation chemistry is also shown.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Anatolaki C. Tsitouridou R. 2009. Relationship between acidity and ionic composition of wet precipitation. A two years study at an urban site Thessaloniki Greece. Atmos. Res. 92 100–113. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2008.09.008

  • Anderson K.A. Downing J.A. 2006. Dry and wet atmospheric deposition of nitrogen phosphorus and silicon in an agricultural region. Water. Air. Soil Pollut. 176 351–374. doi:10.1007/s11270-006-9172-4

  • Bayraktar H. Turalioglu F.S. 2005. Composition of wet and bulk deposition in Erzurum Turkey. Chemosphere 59 1537–1546. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.02.013

  • Behera S.N. Sharma M. Aneja V.P. Balasubramanian R. 2013. Ammonia in the atmosphere: A review on emission sources atmospheric chemistry and deposition on terrestrial bodies. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 20 8092–8131. doi:10.1007/s11356-013-2051-9

  • Bisht D.S. Srivastava A.K. Joshi H. Ram K. Singh N. Naja M. Srivastava M.K. Tiwari S. 2017. Chemical characterization of rainwater at a high-altitude site “Nainital” in the central Himalayas India. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 24 3959–3969. doi:10.1007/s11356-016-8093-z

  • Charlson R.J. Rodhe H. 1982. Factors controlling the acidity of natural rainwater. Nature 295 683–685. doi:10.1038/295683a0

  • Chate D.M. Rao P.S.P. Naik M.S. Momin G.A. Safai P.D. Ali K. 2003. Scavenging of aerosols and their chemical species by rain. Atmos. Environ. 37 2477–2484. doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(03)00162-6

  • Chu S.H. 2004. PM2.5 episodes as observed in the speciation trends network. Atmos. Environ. 38 5237–5246. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.01.055

  • Ciężka M. Modelska M. Górka M. Trojanowska-Olichwer A. Widory D. 2015. Chemical and isotopic interpretation of major ion compositions from precipitation: A one-year temporal monitoring study in Wrocław SW Poland. J. Atmos. Chem. 73 61–80. doi:10.1007/s10874-015-9316-2

  • Cugerone K. De Michele C. Ghezzi A. Gianelle V. 2017. Aerosol removal due to precipitation and wind forcings in Milan urban area. J. Hydrol. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.06.033

  • Falkovich A.H. Graber E.R. Schkolnik G. Rudich Y. Maenhaut W. Artaxo P. 2005. Low molecular weight organic acids in aerosol particles from Rondônia Brazil during the biomass-burning transition and wet periods. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5 781–797. doi:10.5194/acp-5-781-2005

  • Ge B. Wang Z. Gbaguidi A.E. Zhang Q. 2016. Source identification of acid rain arising over Northeast China: Observed evidence and model simulation. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 16 1366–1377. doi:10.4209/aaqr.2015.05.0294

  • J. G. Nangbes* 1 and J. B. Nvau 2014. Concentration and Distribution of Inorganic Ions in Rainwater of Jos and Bukuru Metropolis Plateau State Nigeria. IOSR J. Appl. Chem. 7 15–25.

  • Kaya G. Tuncel G. 1997. Trace element and major ion composition of wet and dry depositon in Ankara Turkey. Atmos. Environ. 31 3985–3998. doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00221-5

  • Keene W.C. Pszenny A.P. Galloway J.N. Hawley M.E. 1986. Sea-salt corrections and interpretation of constituent ratios in marine precipitation. J. Geophys. Res. 91 6647. doi:10.1029/JD091iD06p06647

  • Keresztesi Á. Petres S. Ghita G. Dumitru F.D. Moncea M.A. Ozunu A. Szép R. 2018. Ammonium neutralization effect on rainwater chemistry in the basins of the Eastern Carpathians-Romania. Rev. Chim. 69 57–63.

  • Korodi A. Petres S. Keresztesi Á. Szép R. 2017. Sustainable development. Theory or practice? in: International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management SGEM. doi:10.5593/sgem2017/54/S22.049

  • Kulshrestha U.C. Sarkar A.K. Srivastava S.S. Parashar D.C. 1995. Wet-only and bulk deposition studies at New Delhi (India). Water. Air. Soil Pollut. 85 2137–2142. doi:10.1007/BF01186150

  • Pan Y.-P. Zhu X.-Y. Tian S.-L. Wang L.-L. Zhang G.-Z. Zhou Y.-B. Xu P. Hu B. Wang Y.-S. 2017. Wet deposition and scavenging ratio of air pollutants during an extreme rainstorm in the North China Plain. Atmos. Ocean. Sci. Lett. 10 348–353. doi:10.1080/16742834.2017.1343084

  • Pascaud A. Sauvage S. Coddeville P. Nicolas M. Croisé L. Mezdour A. Probst A. 2016. Contrasted spatial and long-term trends in precipitation chemistry and deposition fluxes at rural stations in France. Atmos. Environ. 146 28–43. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.05.019

  • Petres S. Korodi A. Keresztes R. Szép R. 2017. Tendencies and particularities in thermic inversion episodes in the Ciuc basin - Eastern Carpathians Romania. Sect. Appl. Environental Geophys. 445–452.

  • Rao P.S.P. Tiwari S. Matwale J.L. Pervez S. Tunved P. Safai P.D. Srivastava A.K. Bisht D.S. Singh S. Hopke P.K. 2016. Sources of chemical species in rainwater during monsoon and non-monsoonal periods over two mega cities in India and dominant source region of secondary aerosols. Atmos. Environ. 146 90–99. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.06.069

  • Safai P.D. Rao P.S.P. Momin G. a. Ali K. Chate D.M. Praveen P.S. 2004. Chemical composition of precipitation during 1984-2002 at Pune India. Atmos. Environ. 38 1705–1714. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.12.016

  • Salve P.R. Maurya A. Wate S.R. Devotta S. 2008. Chemical composition of major ions in rainwater. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 80 242–246. doi:10.1007/s00128-007-9353-x

  • Seinfeld J.H. 1986. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics of Air Pollution.

  • Singh S. Elumalai S.P. Pal A.K. 2016. Rain pH estimation based on the particulate matter pollutants and wet deposition study. Sci. Total Environ. 563–564 293–301. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.04.066

  • Szép R. Bodor Z. Miklóssy I. Niță I.A. Oprea O.A. Keresztesi Á. 2019. Influence of peat fires on the rainwater chemistry in intra-mountain basins with specific atmospheric circulations (Eastern Carpathians Romania). Sci. Total Environ. 647 275–289. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.462

  • Szép R. Keresztes R. Constantin L. 2016a. Multi-model assessment of tropospheric ozone pollution indices of risk to human health and crops and ozone deposition in Ciuc Depression – Romania. Rev. Chim. 67 1–6.

  • Szép R. Keresztes R. Deák G. Tobă F. Ghimpusian M. 2016b. The dry deposition of PM10 and PM2.5 to the vegetation and its health effect in the Ciuc basin. Rev. Chim. 67 639–644.

  • Szép R. Keresztes R. Korodi A. Tonk S. 2017a. Study of air pollution and atmospheric stability in Ciuc basin-Romania. Rev. Chim. 68 1763–1767.

  • Szép R. Keresztes R. Korodi A. Tonk S. Niculae A.G. Birloiu A.M. 2016c. Dew point - Indirect particulate matter pollution indicator in the Ciuc Basin -Harghita Romania. Rev. Chim. 67 1914–1921.

  • Szép R. Keresztes R. Tonk S. Korodi A. Craciun M.E. 2017b. The Examination of the Effects of Relative Humidity on the Changes of Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations in the Ciuc Basin Romania. Rev. Chim. 2–5.

  • Szép R. Mateescu E. Nechifor A.C. Keresztesi Á. 2017c. Chemical characteristics and source analysis on ionic composition of rainwater collected in the Carpathians “Cold Pole” Ciuc basin Eastern Carpathians Romania. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 24 1–15. doi:10.1007/s11356-017-0318-2

  • Szép R. Mateescu E. Niță A. Bîrsan M. Zsolt B. Keresztesi Á. 2018. Effects of the Eastern Carpathians on atmospheric circulations and precipitation chemistry from 2006 to 2016 at four monitoring stations (Eastern Carpathians Romania). Atmos. Res. 214 311–328. doi:10.1016/J.ATMOSRES.2018.08.009

  • Szép R. Mátyás L. 2014. The Role of Regional Atmospheric Stability in High-Pm 10 Concentration Episodes in Miercurea Ciuc ( Harghita ). Carpathian J. Earth Environ. Sci. 9 241–250.

  • Szép R. Mátyás L. Keresztes R. Ghimpusan M. 2016d. Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations - Seasonal and Daily Analysis and its Association with NO and NO2 as a Function of NOx in Ciuc Depression – Romania. Rev. Chim. 67 205–213.

  • Wang H. Han G. 2011. Chemical composition of rainwater and anthropogenic influences in Chengdu Southwest China. Atmos. Res. 99 190–196. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.10.004

  • Wang X. Zhang L. Moran M.D. 2010. Uncertainty assessment of current size-resolved parameterizations for below-cloud particle scavenging by rain. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10 5685–5705. doi:10.5194/acp-10-5685-2010

  • Wu Y. Xu Z. Liu W. Zhao T. Zhang X. Jiang H. Yu C. Zhou L. Zhou X. 2016. Chemical compositions of precipitation at three non-urban sites of Hebei Province North China: Influence of terrestrial sources on ionic composition. Atmos. Res. 181 115–123. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2016.06.009

  • Xu D. Ge B. Wang Z. Sun Y. Chen Y. Ji D. Yang T. Ma Z. Cheng N. Hao J. Yao X. 2017. Below-cloud wet scavenging of soluble inorganic ions by rain in Beijing during the summer of 2014. Environ. Pollut. 230 963–973. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2017.07.033

  • Zhang L. Wang X. Moran M.D. Feng J. 2013. Review and uncertainty assessment of size-resolved scavenging coefficient formulations for below-cloud snow scavenging of atmospheric aerosols. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13 10005–10025. doi:10.5194/acp-13-10005-2013

Search
Journal information
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 73 73 11
PDF Downloads 61 61 5