Lidar has provided significant benefits for forest development and engineering operations and provides a good means to collect information on forest stands.
A common analysis using LiDAR data computes the CHM as a difference between DSM and DTM, create a DTM from the ground returns and a DSM from the first returns and subtract the two rasters, but how exactly are generated the DTM and the DSM. Irregular height variations, called data pits are present in the CHM and appear when the first Lidar return is far below the canopy. The purpose of this study is an approach that computes the CHM directly from height-normalized LiDAR points.
Khosravipour, A. et. al., 2013. Development of an Algorithm to Generate a LiDAR Pit-Free Canopy Height Model. Silvilaser 2013 (SL2013-030). pp. 125-126.
Khosravipour, A., Skidmore, A.K., Isenburg, M., Wang, T.J., Hussin, Y.A., 2014. Generating pit-free Canopy Height Models from Airborne LiDAR. PE&RS Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 80, 863-872; rapidlasso GmbH, Friedrichshafener Straße 1, 82205 Gilching, Germany
Leckie, D., Gougeon, F., Hill, D., Quinn, R., Armstrong, L., and Shreenan, R., 2003. Combined high-density lidar and multispectral imagery for individual tree crown analysis. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 29, 633-649.
Perez, J.J. et. al. 2006. Tree Crown Structure in a Mixed Coniferous Forest in Mexico. Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development. pp. 1-7.
Persson, A., Holmgren, J., and Soderman, U., 2002. Detecting and measuring individual trees using an airborne laser scanner. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 68, 925-932.
R. J. L. Argamosa, E.C. Paringit, K.R. Quinton, F. A. M. Tandoc, R. A. G Faelga, C. A. G. Ibañez, M. A. V. Posilero, G. P. Zaragosa. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLI-B8, 2016 XXIII ISPRS Congress, 12–19 July 2016, Prague, Czech Republic, Fully automated gis-based individual tree crown delineation based on curvature values from a lidar derived canopy height model in a coniferous plantation
Solberg, S., Naesset, E., and Bollandsas, O. M., 2006. Single tree segmentation using airborne laser scanner data in a structurally heterogeneous spruce forest. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 72, 1369.