Psychobiography of Jesus Christ in view of Władysław Witwicki’s theory of cratism

Open access

Abstract

The article is an attempt at a critical evaluation of applying one of the most original theories of Polish psychology, i.e. W. Witwicki’s theory of cratism, to the interpretation of the activities and personality of Jesus Christ. The theory of cratism, though it provides substantial explanation possibilities, has been largely forgotten. W. Witwicki used it to try to interpret many aspects of human activity such as art, social relations, as well as the life of ancient figures, among others, Socrates and Jesus Christ. Thanks to this, he created the first ever in Polish psychology (and also one of the first in world psychology) psychobiography. The proposal to decipher the activity of Jesus of Nazareth through Witwicki, however, raises large concerns, which discouraged many psychologists, and especially religious environments. I would like to indicate the most controversial moments of his work, while drawing attention to the great value of the theory itself also today, at the beginning of the 21st century, particularly in the area of historical psychology.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Arapov M. & Cherc M. (1983). Mathematische Methoden in der historischen Linguistik. Bochum: Brockmeyer.

  • Adler A. (1907). Studie über die Minderwertigkeit von Organen. Berlin/Wien: Urban & Schwarzenberg.

  • Bleuler E. (1916). Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie. Berlin: Springer.

  • Citlak A. (2014). The problem of linguistic inter-group bias in historical documents. Studia Psychologiczne 52(2) 40-56.

  • Coniglione F. Poli R. & Woleński J. (Eds.). (1993). Polish Scientific Philosophy. The Lvov-Warsaw School. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

  • Erikson E. H. (1958). Young Man Luter: A Study in Psychoanalysis and History. New York: Norton.

  • Erikson E. H. (1969). Ghandi’s Truth: On the Origins of Militant Nonviolence. New York: Norton.

  • Ertel S. (1986). Language Thought and Culture: Toward a mergence of diverging problem fields. Advances in Psychology 39 139-163.

  • Freud S. (1939). Der Mann Moses und die monotheistische Religion. Amsterdam: Allert de Lange.

  • Hall S. (1917). Jesus the Christ in the Light of Psychology. New York: Doubleday Page & Company.

  • Hitchcock A. (1908). The Psychology of Jesus. A Study of Development of His Self-Consciousness. Chicago: The Pilgrim Press.

  • Jadczak R. (1981). Teoria kratyzmu Władysława Witwickiego. Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici 5(121) 25-39.

  • Köhler R. Altmann G. & Piotrowski R. (Eds.). (2005). Quantitative Linguistics. An International Handbook. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.

  • Kretschmer E. (1929). Geniale Menschen. Berlin: Springer.

  • Kubikowska E. (1999). Od Redakcji. In Platon. Dialogi Tom 1. Kęty: Wydawnictwo Antyk.

  • Kurcz I. (1992). Pamięć uczenie się język. In T. Tomaszewski (Ed.) Psychologia ogólna t. 3. Warszawa: PWN.

  • Maass A. Salvi D. Arcuri L. Semin G. R. (1989). Language use in intergroup contexts: The linguistic intergroup bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57(6) 981-993.

  • Nestle E. & Aland K. (Eds.) (1993). Novum Testamentum Graece. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft.

  • Nowicki A. (1982). Witwicki. Warszawa: Wiedza Powszechna.

  • Runyan W. M. (1984). Life Histories and Psychobiography. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Rzepa T. (1991). Psychologia Władysława Witwickiego. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM.

  • Rzepa T. (2002). O interpretowaniu psychologicznym w kręgu szkoły lwowsko-warszawskiej. Warszawa: Polskie Towarzystwo Semiotyczne.

  • Schweitz er A. (1913a). Geschichte des Leben-Jesu Forschung. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck.

  • Schweitz er A. (1913b). Die psychiatrische Beurteiung Jesu. Darstellung und Kritik. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck.

  • Semin G. R. & Fiedler K. (1988). The cognitive functions of linguistic categories in describing persons: Social cognition and language. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54 558-568.

  • Semin G. R. & Fiedler K. (1991). The linguistic category model its bases applications and range. European Review of Social Psychology2(1) 1-50.

  • Smereka W. (1961). Prof. Witwicki jako tłumacz ewangelii. Ruch Biblijny i Liturgiczny14(3-4) 114-120.

  • Tomaszewski T. (1981). Zur Psychologie der Tatigkeit. Berlin: VEB.

  • Twardowski K. (1999). Actions and Products. Comments on the Border Area of Psychology Grammar and Logic. In J. L. Brandl and J. Woleński (Eds.). Kazimierz Twardowski. On Actions Products and Other Topics in Philosophy Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities (pp. 103–132). Amsterdam/Atlanta: Rodopi. Originally published in 1919.

  • Witwicki W. (1900). Analiza psychologiczna ambicji. Przegląd Filozoficzny3(4) 26–49.

  • Witwicki W. (1907). Z psychologii stosunków osobistych. Przegląd Filozoficzny10(4) 531-537.

  • Witwicki W. (1947). Przechadzki ateńskie. Warszawa: PWN.

  • Witwicki W. (1958). Dobra Nowina według Mateusza i Marka. Warszawa: PWN.

  • Witwicki W. (1927/1963). Psychologia t. 2. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. (Original work published in 1927).

  • Wojciszke B. (1997). Parallels between competence-versus morality-related traits and individualistic versus collectivistic values. European Journal of Social Psychology27(3) 245-256.

Search
Journal information
Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 330 204 20
PDF Downloads 177 112 11