Hungarian Adaptation of the Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2 and Test of an Expanded Model with Psychological Variables

Open access

Abstract

The aims of this study were to adapt the Hungarian version of the Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2 and test an expanded Sport Commitment Model (SCM) with psychological variables.

Participants were 526 adolescent athletes (aged 14-18 years, 52.3% males). Applied scales were the following: Hungarian version of the Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2, Consideration of the Future Consequences Scale and Health Attitudes Scale. Exploratory, confirmatory, and path analysis were used for statistical analysis.

Our result showed adequate construct validity of the Hungarian version of Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2. We found several positive predictors of Enthusiastic Commitment and three positive predictors of Constrained Commitment. We found that Health Attitudes had positive relationship with Constrained Commitment and it was associated with future goals and plans; whereas Enthusiastic Commitment had a positive relationship, and Constrained Commitment had a negative relationship with Future Orientation.

Information about sport commitment provided by Sport Commitment Questionnaire may be useful as a tool to prevent dropout among young athletes.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Atkins M.R. Johnson D.M. Force E.C. ---amp--- Petrie T.A. (2015). Peers parents and coaches oh my! The relation of the motivational climate to boys’ intention to continue in sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise16 170-180.

  • Banville D. Desrosiers P. ---amp--- Genet-Volet Y. (2000). Translating questionnaires and inventories using a cross-cultural translation technique. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education19(3) 374-387.

  • Bearden W. Netemeyer R. ---amp--- Haws K. (2011). Handbook of marketing scales: Multi-item measures for marketing and consumer behavior research. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.doi:10.4135/9781412996761

  • Buckworth J. Lee R.E. Regan G. Schneider L.K. ---amp--- DiClemente C.C. (2007). Decomposing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for exercise: Application to stages of motivational readiness. Psychology of Sport and Exercise8(4) 441-461.

  • Caglar E. Canlan Y. ---amp--- Demir M. (2009). Recreational exercise motives of adolescents and young adults. Journal of Human Kinetics22 83-89.

  • Carpenter P.J. (1992). Staying in sport: Young athletes’ motivations for continued involvement. Los Angeles: University of California. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.

  • Carpenter P.J. ---amp--- Coleman R. (1998). A longitudinal study of elite youth cricketers’ commitment. International Journal of Sport Psychology 29(3) 195-210.

  • Carpenter P.J. ---amp--- Scanlan T.K. (1998). Changes over time in the determinants of sport commitment. Pediatric Exercise Science10(4) 356-365. doi:10.1123/pes.10.4.356

  • Carpenter P.J. Scanlan T.K. Simons J.P. ---amp--- Lobel M. (1993). A test of the sport commitment model using structural equation modeling. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology15(2) 119-133.

  • Csikszentmihalyi M. (1988). The flow experience and its significance for human psychology. Optimal experience 15-35.

  • Deci E.L. ---amp--- Ryan R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York NY: Plenum Press.

  • Dunkel Schetter C. ---amp--- Brooks K. (2009). The nature of SS. In H.T. Reis ---amp--- S. Sprecher (Eds.) Encyclopedia of human relationships (pp. 1565e1570). Thousand Oaks CA: Sage.

  • Fornell C. ---amp--- Larcker D.F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research18(1) 39.

  • Gabriele J.M. Gill D.L. ---amp--- Adams C.E. (2011). The roles of want to commitment and have to commitment in explaining physical activity behavior. Journal of Physical Activity and Health8(3) 420-428.

  • Gerbing D.W. ---amp--- Hamilton J.G. (1996). Viability of exploratory factor analysis as a precursor to confirmatory factor analysis. Structural Equation Modeling3 62–72.

  • Hair J.F. Jr. Black W.C. Babin B.J. ---amp--- Anderson R.E. (2009). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River NJ: Prentice Hall.

  • Horn T.S. ---amp--- Horn J.L. (2012). Family influences on children’s sport and physical activity participation behavior and psychosocial responses. Handbook of Sport Psychology 685-711.

  • Ireland M.J. Clough B.A. ---amp--- Day J.J. (2017). The cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire: Factorial convergent and criterion validity analyses of the full and short versions. Personality and Individual Differences110 90-95.

  • Kaiser H.F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika39(1) 31-36.

  • Lee J.Q. McInerney D.M. Liem G.A. ---amp--- Ortiga Y.P. (2010). The relationship between future goals and achievement goal orientations: An intrinsic–extrinsic motivation perspective. Contemporary Educational Psychology35(4) 264-279.

  • Locke E.A. ---amp--- Latham G.P. (1985). The application of goal setting to sports. Journal of Sport Psychology7(3) 205-222.

  • Lyubomirsky S. King L. ---amp--- Diener E. (2005). The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin131(6) 803-855.

  • Malhotra N.K. ---amp--- Dash S. (2011). Marketing research: An applied orientation. London: Pearson Publishing.

  • Masten R. Dimec T. Donko I.A. ---amp--- Tusak M. (2010). Motives for sport participation attitudes to sport and general health status of slovenian armed forces emplyees. Kinesiology42(2) 153-163.

  • Matsumoto D. (2010). Cross-cultural Research. Handbook of research methods in experimental psychology 189-208.

  • Molanorouzi K. Khoo S. ---amp--- Morris T. (2014). Validating the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS). BMC Public Health14 1-15.

  • Paic R. Kajos A. Meszler B. ---amp--- Prisztóka G. (2017). Validation of the Hungarian Sport Motivation Scale (H SMS). Cognition Brain Behavior. An Interdisciplinary Journal21(4) 275-291.

  • Piko B.F. Luszczynska A. Gibbons F.X. ---amp--- Teközel M. (2005). A culture-based study of personal and social influences of adolescent smoking. European Journal of Public Health15(4) 393-398.

  • Scanlan T.K. Carpenter P.J. Simons J.P. Schmidt G.W. ---amp--- Keeler B. (1993a). An introduction to the Sport Commitment Model. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology15(1) 1-15.

  • Scanlan T.K. Carpenter P.J. Simons J.P. Schmidt G.W. ---amp--- Keeler B. (1993b). The Sport Commitment Model: Measurement development for the youth-sport domain. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology15(1) 16-38.

  • Scanlan T.K. Chow G.M. Sousa C. Scanlan L.A. ---amp--- Knifsend C.A. (2016). The development of the Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2 (English version). Psychology of Sport and Exercise22 233-246.

  • Scanlan T.K. Russell D.G. Beals K. P. ---amp--- Scanlan L.A. (2003). Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK): II. A direct test and expansion of the Sport Commitment Model with elite amateur aportsmen. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology25(3) 377-401. doi:10.1123/jsep.25.3.377

  • Scanlan T.K. Russell D.G. Magyar T.M. ---amp--- Scanlan L.A. (2009). Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK): III. An examination of the external validity across gender and the expansion and clarification of the Sport Commitment Model. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology31(6) 685-705.

  • Scanlan T.K. Russell D.G. Scanlan L.A. Klunchoo T.J. ---amp--- Chow G.M. (2013). Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK): IV. Identification of new candidate commitment sources in the Sport Commitment Model. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology35(5) 525-535. doi:10.1123/jsep.35.5.525

  • Sousa C. Torregrosa M. Vilardich C. Villamarín F. ---amp--- Cruz J. (2007). The commitment of young soccer players. Psichothema29(2) 256-262.

  • Standage M. Gillison F.B. Ntoumanis N. ---amp--- Treasure D.C. (2012). Predicting students’ physical activity and health-related well-being: A prospective cross-domain investigation of motivation across school physical education and exercise settings. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology34(1) 37-60.

  • Stanley L.S. (1996). The development and validation of an instrument to assess attitudes toward cultural diversity and pluralism among preservice physical educators. Educational and Psychological Measurement56(5) 891-897.

  • Strathman A. Gleicher F. Boninger D.S. ---amp--- Edwards C.S. (1994). The consideration of future consequences: Weighing immediate and distant outcomes of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology66(4) 742-752.

  • Weiss W.M. ---amp--- Weiss M.R. (2003). Attraction-and entrapment-based commitment among competitive female gymnasts. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology25(2) 229-247.

  • Weiss W.M. ---amp--- Weiss M.R. (2006). A longitudinal analysis of commitment among competitive female gymnasts. Psychology of Sport and Exercise7(3) 309-323.

  • Wilson P.M. Rodgers W.M. Carpenter P.J. Hall C. Hardy J. ---amp--- Fraser S.N. (2004). The relationship between commitment and exercise behavior. Psychology of Sport and Exercise5(4) 405-421.

  • Wong H. Mak C. ---amp--- To W. (2015). Development of a dental anxiety provoking scale: A pilot study in Hong. Kong. Journal of Dental Sciences 10(3) pp.240-247.

  • Young B.W. ---amp--- Medic N. (2011). Examining social influences on the sport commitment of Masters swimmers. Psychology of Sport and Exercise12(2) 168-175.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2018: 0.3

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.201
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.333

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 19 19 19
PDF Downloads 15 15 15