A Comparative Study of Leisure Constraints in Outdoor Leisure Activities Depending on Recognition of the Level of Particulate Matter (PM10): Focused on Golf Participants in the Republic of Korea

Open access


Particulate matter, one of the most recent social problems in Korea, not only poses a threat to people’s health, but is also emerging as a constraint to discourage outdoor leisure activities. Golf, a leisure sport played outdoors for hours, is not free from such a threat, and now is time to analyze golfers’ recognition of particulate matter. To examine whether particulate matter, among other constraints for golfers, had a significant effect as well as how golfers recognized particulate matter, we used 324 collected questionnaires in this study. After exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis through SPSS 23.0, we divided questionnaire participants into recognition and non-recognition groups based on whether they checked and recognized atmospheric conditions, including particulate matter, before playing golf, and used multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to compare and analyze leisure constraints. Respondents in the recognition group who recognized particulate matter in advance experienced participation constraints in weather and health factors, while those in the non-recognition group experienced participation constraints in skill and confidence factors. In other words, respondents participated in outdoor leisure activities even though they recognized the level of hazardous particulate matter in the air beforehand, and particulate matter worked as a participation constraint for them; this finding confirmed that it will be necessary in the future to take preventative action more actively against the danger of particulate matter.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Crawford D.W. & Godbey G. (1987). Reconceptualizing barriers to family leisure. Leisure Sciences 9 119-127.

  • Crawford D.W. Jackson E.L. & Godbey G. (1991). A hierarchical model of leisure constraints. Leisure Sciences 13 309-320.

  • Dishman R.K. (2003). The impact of behavior on quality of life. Quality of Life Research 12 43-49.

  • Field A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications.

  • Godbey G. Crawford D.W. & Shen X.S. (2011). Assessing hierarchical leisure constraints theory after two decades. Journal of Leisure Research 42(1) 111-134.

  • Henderson K.A. & Bialeschki M.D. (2008). Leisure and active lifestyles: Research reflections. Leisure Sciences 27 355-365.

  • Ingen E.V. & Eijck K.V. (2009). Leisure and social capital: An analysis of types of company and activities. Leisure Sciences 31 192-206.

  • Iso-Ahola S. & Mannell R. (1985). Social and psychological constraints on leisure. In M.G. Wade (Ed.) Constraints on leisure (pp. 111-151). Springfield IL: Charles C. Thomas.

  • Jackson E.L. (1990a). Trends in leisure preferences: Alternative constraints-related explanations. Journal of Applied Recreation Research 15 129-145.

  • Jackson E.L. (1990b). Variations in the desire to begin a leisure activity: Evidence of antecedent constraints? Journal of Leisure Research 22 55-70.

  • Jun J. & Kyle G.T. (2011). The effect of identity conflict/facilitation on the experience of constraints to leisure and constraint negotiation. Journal of Leisure Research43(2) 176-204.

  • Kemperman A.D.A.M. & Timmermans H.J.P. (2008). Influence of socio-demographics and residential environment on leisure activity participation. Leisure Sciences 30 306-324.

  • Kim O-H. & Seo H-J. (2018). A study on globalization process of Korean women’s golf. Korean Journal of Physical Education 57(1) 37-57.

  • Korean Golf Association (2018). 2017 Korean golf index. Retrieved from https://news.sbs.co.kr/news/endPage.do?news_id=N1005036755

  • Lim J-T. & Yoo D-H. (2015). History of LPGA tour entry process of the Korean female professional golfers’: Focusing on entry timing of Park Se-Ri. Korean Journal of History of Physical Education Sport and Dance 20(4) 99-111.

  • Lyu S.O. & Oh C. (2014). Recreationists’ constraints negotiation process for continual leisure engagement. Leisure Sciences36(5) 479-497.

  • Lyu S.O. (2015). Golf and screen golf substitutive? or complementary? A choice experimental approach. Korean Journal of Hotel Administration 24(4) 1-16.

  • Ministry of Environment. (2018). Environmental standards for fine dust. Retrieved from http://www.me.go.kr/issue/finedust5/

  • Mullin B.J. Hardy S. & Sutton W.A. (2014). Sport marketing. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics

  • Nunnally J.C. & Bernstein I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

  • Samdahl D. M. & Jekubovich N.J. (1997). A critique of leisure constraints: Comparative analyses and understandings. Journal of Leisure Research 29(4) 430-452.

  • Trenberth L. & Dewe P. (2002). The important of leisure as a means of coping with work related stress: An exploratory study. Counseling Psychology Quarterly 15 59-72.

  • Tsai E.H. & Coleman D.J. (2009). The influence of constraints and self-efficacies on participation in regular active recreation. Leisure Sciences 31 364-383.

  • WHO (2018). Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ambient-(outdoor)-air-quality-and-health

  • Zhang P.L. & Choi M.J. (2018). The impact of particulate matter (PM10) on outdoor leisure activities in Korea. Korea Planning Association. 53(3) 133-143.

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 0.3

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.201
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.333

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 39 39 11
PDF Downloads 31 31 6