Performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) crises in sport provide stories for the mass media. From individuals such as Ben Johnson and Lance Armstrong, to countries and organisations such as Russian Athletics and Major League Baseball. More recently, research has emerged that suggests that those who take drugs, even the once, are permanently advantaged over those who never have (Egner et al., 2013; Eriksson, 2006). This has expanded existing arguments related to PEDs, even extending debate to one that argues that PED use should be monitored and legalised in order to create a level playing field – as opposed to ‘banning’ athletes. In contrast, there are varying reasons for the rationale of ‘clean’ sports. In the first kind of discussion related to this the central premise is often about health concerns and PED use. In the second discussion, we hear much about cheating, unfairness, and the perversion of sport (Schneider & Butcher, 2000). At the present time, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) police PED use in sport and use Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs) that allow a sliding scale of transgressions with lifetime bans not given in the first instance of a failed test. Put simply then, these ADRVs do not facilitate a system for those not wishing to compete with others who, at any time, have used PEDs. However, in the 1980's a number of people in Britain made the decision to distance themselves from what they saw as significant doping in British and international Weightlifting. They achieved this through creating competitive strength organisations dedicated to a drug free for life ethos. In this paper I draw on the experiences and reflections of some of these key people, and contend that it was the ideology of fairplay that influenced this movement, and that the rules on PED use should not be fully authoritative and determinate.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
BDFPA. (2016). BDFPA History. Retrieved 15.07.2016 from http://bdfpa.co.uk/
Bhasin S. Storer T. Berman N. Callegari C. Levenger B. Phillips J. Bunnell T. Tricker R. Shirazi A. & Casaburi R. (1996). The Effects of Supraphysiologic Doses of Testosterone on Muscle Size and Strength in Normal Men. The New England Journal of Medicine 335(1) 1-7. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199607043350101
BPO. (2016). Welcome to the BPO Website. Retrieved 16.07.2016 from http://britishpowerliftingorganisation.co/
Buck J. (1998). Louis Cyr and Charles Sampson: Archetypes of Vaudevillian Strongmen. Iron Game History 5(3) 18-28.
Coakley J. & Pike E. (2009). Sports in Society: Issues and Controversies. Berkshire: McGraw Hill.
Cook T. (2011). Backhang Gazette no.1. Grimsby: British Strength Athlete’s Guild.
Cook T. (2015). Backhang Gazette no.2 Grimsby British Strength Athlete’s Guild.
Cook T. (2016). Backhang Gazette no.2 Grimsby British Strength Athlete’s Guild.
Crisp P. (2016). All-Round Weightlifting: Small Spaces Big Weights - the Recreation and Reconceptualisation of a Strength Sport. In Howley C & S. Dun. (Eds.) The Playing Field - Making sense of Spaces and Places in Sporting Culture (pp. 157-166). Oxfordshire: Inter-Disciplinary Press.
Day D. (2011). Craft Coaching and the ‘Discerning Eye’ of the Coach. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching 6(1) 179-195. DOI: 10.1260/1747-95188.8.131.52
Devine W.J. (2010). Doping is a threat to sporting excellence British Journal of Sports Medicine. published online June 11 2010.
Dunning E. & Sheard K. (1979.) Barbarians Gentlemen and Players. Oxford: Martin Robertson.
Egner I. Bruusgard J.C. Eftestøl E. & Gundersen K. (2013). A Cellular Memory Mechanism Aids Overload hypertrophy in Muscle Long after an Episodic Exposure to Anabolic Steroids. Journal of Physiology 591(24) 6221-6230. DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2013.264457.
Eichberg H. (1998). 1998. Body Cultures: Essays on Sport Space and Identity. London: Routledge.
Eriksson A. (2006). Strength Training and Anabolic Steroids: A Comparative Study of the Vastus Lateralis a Thigh Muscle and the Trapezius a Shoulder Muscle of Strength-Trained Athletes. Unpublished medical dissertation. Umeå University Umeå Sweden.
Hargreaves J. (1986). Sport Power and Culture. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Harrison G. Pope H.G. Jr. Wood R. Rogol A. Nyberg F. Bowers L. & Bhasin S. (2014). Adverse Health Consequences of Performance-Enhancing Drugs: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement. Endocrine Reviews. 35(3) 341-375. DOI: 10.1210/er.2013-1058
Haywood L. Kew F. Brmham P. Spink J. Capernerhusrt J. & Henry I. (1990). Understanding Leisure. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes.
Holt R. (1989). Sport and the British: A Modern History. Oxford: Clarendon.
Holt R. & Mason T. (2000). Sport in Britain 1945-2000. Oxford: Blackwell.
IAWA. (UK). (2018). History of I.A.W.A. (UK) International All-Round Weightlifting Association. Retrieved 15.06.2018 from http://www.iawa.uk/about/
IWF. (2015). Weightlifting History. Retrieved 01.05.2015 from http://www.iwf.net/weightlifting_/history/
Kayser B. & Smith A.C.T. (2008). Globalisation of anti-doping: the reverse side of the medal. British Medical Journal. 337 85-87. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.a584
Klein A. (1993). Little Big Men: Bodybuilding Subculture and Gender Construction. U.S.A: The University of New York Press.
Kuznetsov V. (1982). The Potentialities of Man and Anthropomaximology. International Social Science Journal: Sporting Life 92: 277-290
Lewandowski J. (2007). Boxing: The Sweet Science of Constraints. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 34: 26-38.
Lyle J (2002). Sports Coaching Concepts: a framework for coaches’ behavior. Abingdon Routldege.
Mangan J.A. (1986). Athleticism in the Victorian and Edwardian Public School. Lewes: The Falmer Press.
Mason T. (1988). Sport in Britain. London: Faber & Faber.
McIntosh P. (1985). Sport in Society. London: West London Press.
Pfister G. (2003). Cultural Confrontations: German Turnen Swedish Gymnastics and English sport – European Diversity in Physical Activities From a Historical Perspective. Culture Sport Society 6 61-91. DOI: 10.1080/14610980312331271489
Savulescu J. Foddy B. & Clayton M. (2004). Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in sport. British Journal of Sports Medicine 38 666-670. DOI: 10.1136/bjsm.2003.005249. 38: 666-670.
Robinson P.E. (2010). Foundations of Sport Coaching. London: Routledge.
Schneider A. & Butcher R (2000). A Philosophical Overview of the Arguments on Banning Doping in Sport. In C. Tamburrini & T. Tännsjö (Eds.) Values in Sport: Elitism Nationalism Gender Equality and the Scientific Manufacturing of Winners (Ethics and Sport) (pp. 185-199). London: Taylor & Francis.
Suits. B. (1978). The Grasshopper: Games Life and Utopia. London: University of Toronto Press.
USADA. (2014). Use of Performance-Enhancing Drugs More Prevalent than Type 1 Diabetes or HIV Infection. Retrieved July 1 2018 from https://www.usada.org/use-performance-enhancing-drugs-prevalent-type-1-diabetes-hiv-infection/
WADA. (2014). Annual Report: A New Chapter for Clean Sport. Retrieved 31.07.2016 from https://wada-main-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/wada-2014-annual-report-en-rev.pdf
WADA. (2016). Who We Are. Retrieved July 31 2016 from https://www.wada-ama.org/en/who-we-are
WADA. (2018). Contributions to WADA’s budget 2018. Retrieved 1.07.2018 from https://www.wada-ama.org/sites/default/files/resources/files/wada_contributions_2018_update_en.pdf
Yesalis C.E. & Bahrke M.S. (2001). History of Doping in Sport. International Sports Studies 24(1) 42-50.
Young D.C. (2004). A Brief History of the Olympic Games. Oxford: Blackwell.
Zakheim A. & Mascio M. (2018). Sporting Integrity Coherence and Being True to the Spirit of a Game. Sport Ethics and Philosophy. DOI: 10.1080/17511321.2018.1475419