The Effect of Coaching Practices on Psychological Contract Fulfillment of Student-Athletes

Abstract

We examine the relationships between coaching practices, psychological contract fulfillment and the impact it has on satisfaction and in-role behavior of student-athletes. We surveyed a total of 183 student-athletes in Canada. Utilizing Partial Least Squares path modeling algorithm, the results confirm that the extent of psychological contract fulfillment is positively related to satisfaction and role-behavior. In addition, practices of compensation, information sharing, and security (i.e. ensuring continuation of position on the team) are related to fulfillment of psychological contracts. However, the data does not provide support for the idea that training is related to the fulfillment of psychological contracts. The results suggest that universities can manage students-athletes’ expectations by institutionalizing coaching practices that signal commitments for compensation, information sharing, and provide assurance of position on the team. Such practices have potential to improve the athlete’s performance.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Abdullah, A.B.M. (2011). The Role of Cultural Context and Psychological Contract on Workforce Management in the Multinational Corporations Operating in Emerging Markets. University of South Australia.

  • Argyris, C. (1960). Individual Actualization in Complex Organizations. Mental Hygiene, 44(2), 226-237.

  • Arthur, J.B. (1992). The link between business strategy and industrial relations systems in American steel minimills. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 3(45), 488-506. DOI: 10.1177/001979399204500306

  • Arthur, J.B. (1994). Effects of human resource systems on manufacturing performance and turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 3(37), 670-687. DOI: 10.2307/256705

  • Barnhill, C.R. (2011). An Examination of the Antecedents and Outcomes of Psychological Contract Violation of Intercollegiate Student-Athletes. (PhD), Ohio State University. Retrieved from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1311864418

  • Barnhill, C.R., & Turner, B.A. (2013). Broken Promises: The Effect of Psychological Contract Violation on Student-Athlete Trust and Intentions to Leave Their Team. Journal of Intercollegiate Sport, 6(2), 179-195.

  • Blau, P.M. (1964). Exchange and Power in Social Life. New Brunswick USA, and London UK: Transaction Books.

  • Case, R. (1998). Leader Member Exchange Theory and sport: possible applications. Journal of Sport Behavior, 21(4), 387-395.

  • Chelladurai, P. (1990). Leadership in sports: A review. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 21(4), 328-354.

  • Conroy, D.E., & Coatsworth, J.D. (2006). Coach training as a strategy for promoting youth social development. Sport Psychologist, 20(2), 128-144.

  • Day, D. (2012). ‘Magical and fanciful theories’: sports psychologists and craft coaches. Sports Coaching Review, 1(1), 52-66. DOI: 10.1080/21640629.2012.702468

  • Fornell, C., & Larcker, D.F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. JMR, Journal of Marketing Research (pre-1986), 18(3), 382-382.

  • Green, K.W., Wu, C., Whitten, D., & Medlin, B. (2006). The impact of strategic human resource management on firm performance and HR professionals' work attitude and work performance. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(4), 559-579. DOI: 10.1080/09585190600581279

  • Greenleaf, C., Gould, D., & Dieffenbach, K. (2001). Factors influencing Olympic performance: interviews with Atlanta and Negano US Olympians. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 13(2), 154-184. DOI: 10.1080/104132001753149874

  • Guest, D.E. (1997). Human resource management and performance: a review and research agenda. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8(3), 263-276. DOI: 10.1080/095851997341630

  • Hair Jr, J.F., Hult, G.T., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2013). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Incorporated.

  • Hulland, J. (1999). Use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management research: a review of four recent studies. Strategic Management Journal, 20(2), 195-204. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199902)20:2<195::AIDSMJ13>3.0.CO;2-7

  • Jackson, B., Grove, J.R., & Beauchamp, M.R. (2010). Relational efficacy beliefs and relationship quality within coach-athlete dyads. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 27(8), 1035-1050. DOI: 10.1177/0265407510378123

  • Kellett, P. (1999). Organisational leadership: Lessons from professional coaches. Sport Management Review, 2(2), 150-171. DOI: 10.1016/S1441-3523(99)70094-X

  • Kock, N. (2012). WarpPLS 5.0 User Manual. ScriptWarp Systems. Laredo, Texas.

  • Krawczyk, Z. (2009). Theoretical Conceptions in Sport Social Sciences. Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research, 47(1), 5-10. DOI: 10.2478/v10141-009-0026-9

  • Lee, C., Liu, J., Rousseau, D.M., Hui, C., & Chen, Z.X. (2011). Inducements, contributions, and fulfillment in new employee psychological contracts. Human Resource Management, 50(2), 201-226. DOI: 10.1002/hrm.20415.

  • Lyle, J. (2002). Sports coaching concepts: A framework for coaches' behaviour. London: Routledge.

  • Organ, D.W. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior: It's construct clean-up time. Human Performance, 10(2), 85-97. DOI: 10.1207/s15327043hup1002_2

  • Rezania, D., & Gurney, R. (2014). Building successful student-athlete coach relationships: examining coaching practices and commitment to the coach. SpringerPlus, 3(1), 383. DOI: 10.1186/2193-1801-3-383

  • Rezania, D., & Lingham, T. (2009). Towards a method to disseminate knowledge from the post project review. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 7(2), 172-177. DOI: 10.1057/kmrp.2009.9

  • Robinson, S.L., & Morrison, E.W. (1995). Psychological contracts and ocb - the effect of unfulfilled obligations on civic virtue behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16(3), 289-298. DOI: 10.1002/job.4030160309

  • Robinson, S.L., & Morrison, E.W. (2000). The development of psychological contract breach and violation: A longitudinal study (p. 529). Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(7), 525-546. DOI: 10.1002/1099-1379(200008)21:5<525::AID-JOB40>3.0.CO;2-T

  • Rousseau, D.M. (1995). Psychological Contracts in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Incorporated.

  • Rousseau, D.M. (2004). Psychological Contracts in the Workplace: Understanding the Ties That Motivate. The Academy of Management Executive, 18(1), 120-127. DOI: 10.5465/AME.2004.12689213

  • Rousseau, D.M., & Parks, J.M. (1992). The Contracts of individuals and organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 15(1), 1-43.

  • Scanlan, T.K., & Lewthwaite, R. (1986). Social psychological aspects of competition for male youth sport participants: IV. Predictors of enjoyment. Journal of Sport Psychology, 8(1), 25-35.

  • Short, S.E., & Short, M.W. (2005). Essay: Role of the coach in the coach-athlete relationship. Lancet, 366(1), 29-30. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67836-1

  • Smith, R.E., & Smoll, F.L. (1990). Self-esteem and children's reactions to youth sport coaching behaviors: A field study of self-enhancement processes. Developmental psychology, 26(6), 987-993. DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.26.6.987

  • Wayne, S.J., Shore, L.M., & Liden, R.C. (1997). Perceived organizational support and leader-member exchange: A social exchange perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 40(1), 82-111.

  • Weiss, M.R., & Stevens, C. (1993). Motivation and attrition of female coaches: An application of social exchange theory. The Sport Psychologist, 7(3), 244-261.

  • Williams, L.J., & Anderson, S.E. (1991). Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment as Predictors of Organizational Citizenship and In-Role Behaviors. Journal of Management, 17(3), 601-617. DOI: 10.1177/014920639101700305

  • Williams, R. (2011). ATLAS: A Community Policing Response to Adverse Student Athlete Behavior. Campus Law Enforcement Journal, 41(1), 21-23.

  • Zhao, H., Wayne, S.J., Glibkowski, B.C., & Bravo, J. (2007). The impact of psychological contract breach on work-related outcomes: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 60(3), 647-680. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2007.00087.x

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search