Quality of life (QOL) is associated with factors such as health, physical functioning, life satisfaction, a sense of happiness, and others. In case of disabled people, much attention is paid to their QOL rather than only the improvement of physiological variables. In a group of blind and visually impaired people, the effect of physical activity (PA) on the socialization process, the ability to explore own personality traits, developing creativity, and more motivation and desire to overcome the difficulties associated with visual impairment were observed.
The study involved 53 people: visually impaired (NT) sedentary lifestyle people (n=18; 51±12 years) and visually impaired tandem cycling athletes (N) (n=17; 42±13 years). Properly sighted people (P) (n=18; 38±12 years) were partners in tandem with visually impaired athletes. To determine the level of PA, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used. The WHO-Quality of Life (WHO-QOL-BREF), the National Eye Institute 25-item Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25, version 2000), and the Retina AMD Poland Association questionnaire were used to assess QOL.
In visually impaired athletes, significantly greater PA with moderate intensity, moving by bike, and energy expenditure for vigorous recreational exercise and sport in leisuretime was found. Sedentary lifestyle people mainly participated in moderate physical activity around the house. Significant greater satisfaction with health was observed in the case of visually impaired athletes in comparison with NT. All disabled groups rarely had negative feelings such as despair, depression, and anxiety.
Moderate correlations between variables according to physical activity and quality of life in all participants were observed. The meaningfulness of life and life satisfaction also depended on cycling training and moderate physical activity around the house. The obtained data indicate that all available forms of regular PA in visually impaired people could have a beneficial effect on their quality of life.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Auxter D. Pyfer J. & Huettig C. (1997). Principles and Methods of Adapted Physical Education and Recreation. St. Louis MO: Mosby - Year Book Inc.
Blachura B. Blacha R. & Stefanowska M. (2010). Psychosocial aspects of downhill skiing in visually impaired people. Science Dissertations of the University of Physical Education in Wroclaw 31 395-406.
Booth M.L. (2000). Assessment of physical activity: An international perspective. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 71(2) 114-120.
Chen C-C & Lin S-Y (2010). The impact of rope jumping exercise on physical fitness of visually impaired students. Research In Developmental Disabilities 32 (1) 25-29.
Daszykowska J. (2006). Quality of life in the health-related concepts. The University of Rzeszow Medical Review 2 122-128 /in Polish/.
De Vries J. & Van Heck G.L. (1997). The World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument (WHOQOL-100): Validation study with the Dutch version. European Journal of Psychological Assessment 13 164-161.
Dehkordi A.G. (2011). The comparison between athlete females and non-athlete females regarding to general health mental health and quality of life. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 15 1737-1741.
Di Cagno A. Iuliano E. Aquino G. et al. (2013). Psychological well-being and social participation assessment in visually impaired subjects playing Torball: A controlled study. Research In Developmental Disabilities 34(4) 1204-1209.
Gąciarz B. Ostrowska A. & Pańków W. (2008). Social Integration and Occupation Activation of Disabled People Living in Small Towns and Rural Areas Determinants of Success and Failure. IFiS PAN /in Polish/.
Groff D. G. & Zabriskie R. B. (2006). An exploratory study of athletic identity among elite Alpine skiers with physical disabilities: Issues of measurement and design. Journal of Sport Behavior 29 126-141.
Hagströmer M. Oja P. & Sjöström M. (2006). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ): a study of concurrent and construct validity. Public Health Nutrition 9(6) 755-762.
Hajloo N. & Pezeshki H. (2013). Compare happiness psychological tenacity and sensation seeking among athletes and no athletes. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 84(9) 1063-1066.
National Eye Institute. (1996 July). National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire - 25 (VFQ-25). Retrieved May 2013 from: http://www.nei.nih.gov/resources/visionfunction/vfq_ia.pdfRetina AMD Poland. Retrieved May 2013 from: http://www.retinaamd.org.pl/
Karakaya I.C. Aki E. & Ergun N. (2009). Physical fitness of visually impaired adolescent goalball players. Percept Motor Skills 108 129-136.
Karwat D. Jabłoński L. & Krupa S. (2000). The dependence of the life comfort level in people with disabilities on family and social environment. In D. Karwat (Ed.) Adults’ Disability and Rehabilitation as a Medical and Social Problem in Poland (pp. 182-186). Lublin AM.
Kuru E. & Karahan B.G. 2008. Physiological requirements of wheelchair and running basketball players. Selçuk University Journal for Physical Education and Sports Sciences 10 (2) 23-30.
Langelaan M. de Boer M.R. van Nispen R.M.A. et. al. (2007). Impact of visual impairment on quality of life: a comparison with quality of life in the general population and with other chronic conditions. In M. Langelaan (Ed.) Quality of Life of Visually Impaired Working Age Adults (pp. 105-124). The Netherlands: Print Partners.
Langelaan M. van Nispen R.M.A. Knol D.L. et.al. (2007). Visual Functioning Questionnaire: Re-evaluation of psychometric properties for a group of working age adults. In M. Langelaan (Ed.) Quality of Life of Visually Impaired Working Age Adults (pp. 125-149). The Netherlands: Print Partners.
Midha M. Schmitt J.K. & Sclater M. (1999). Exercise effect with the wheelchair aerobic fitness trainer on conditioning and metabolic function in disabled persons: A pilot study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 80(3) 258-261.
Mikkelsen S.S. Tolstrup J.S. Flachs E. et al. (2010). A cohort study of leisure time physical activity and depression. Preventive Medicine 51 471-475.
Morelli T. Folmer E. Foley J.T. et al. (2011). Improving the Lives of Youth with Visual Impairments through Exergames. Fall 4(4) 160-170.
Mouratidis A. & Michou A. (2011). Perfectionism self-determined motivation and coping among adolescent athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 12(4) 355-367.
Movahedi A. Mojtahedi H. & Farazyani F. (2011). Differences in socialization between visually impaired studentathletes and non-athletes. Research In Developmental Disabilities 32(1) 58-62.
Özer D. (2001). Physical Education and Sports For Disabled People (pp. 4-21). Ankara: Nobel Publication Distribution.
Silva G.P. Pereira V.R. Deprá P.P. et al. (2010). Tempo de reação e a eficiência do jogador de goalballnainterceptação/defesa do lançamento/ataque/Reaction time and efficiency of the goalball player in interception/defense of throwing/attack/. Motricidade 6 (4) 13-22.
Ströhle A. (2009). Physical activity exercise depression and anxiety disorders.Journal of Neural Transmission 116 777-784.
Tasiemski T. Wilski M. & Mędak K. (2012). An assessment of athletic identity in blind and able-bodied tandem cyclists. Human Movement 13(2) 178-184.
Teychenne M. Ball K. & Salmon J. (2008). Physical activity and likelihood of depression in adults: A review. Preventive Medicine 46 397-411.
Wolffsohn J. Cochrane A. &Watt N. (2000). Implementation methods for vision related quality of life questionnaires. British Journal Ophthalmology 84(9) 1035-1040.