This article examines the effective road reconstruction technologies applied during construction processes to ensure the required final quality of construction work. The construction quality and especially the overall levelness of roads are influenced by several factors. These factors include high-quality implementation of road structural layers, including active zones, which can be adversely affected by the undisciplined application of technology, insufficient engineering and poor geological surveys. Suitable and effective reconstruction technology provides the required quality of construction work yet does not significantly extend construction time. The authors propose stabilisation using cement or lime during reconstruction. This stabilisation method is used if the structure of the bedrock layers is finely granular. The stabilisation process consists of excavating the unacceptable bedrock layer and mixing it with additives and water. A principally different bedrock stabilisation method consists of completely replacing it with a gravel layer, which is used when individual base layers are diverse and stabilisation using additives would not guarantee the required results, i.e. improved strength characteristics. In some cases, the existing base layers are not suitable for use as road base layers because of their characteristics, such as volumetric instability. For this reason, they must be replaced with more suitable materials. This topic is documented by a practical example.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Agashua L. O. & Ogbiye A. S. (2018). Influence of cement bitumen and lime on some lateritic soil samples as pavement material. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 413(1) pp. 012012. doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/413/1/012012.
Akinje I. (2015). Comparison characterization of A-6(10) laterite soil stabilized with powermax cement and hydrated lime separately. International Journal of Engineering and Technology 5(7) pp. 392-401.
Alonso E. E. Gens A. & Josa A. (1990). A constitutive model for partially saturated soils. Geotechnique 40(3) pp. 405-430.
Alonso E. E. Vaunat J. & Gens A. (1999). Modelling the mechanical behavior of expansive clays. Engineering Geology 54 173-183.
AS 1218.104.22.168. (2017). Methods of testing soils for engineering purposes—Soil compaction and density tests—Determination of the dry density/moisture content relation of a soil using standard compactive effort. Australian Standards Sydney Australia.
AS 1222.214.171.124. (2014). Methods of testing soils for engineering purposes—Soil strength and consolidation tests—Determination of the California Bearing Ratio of a soil—Standard laboratory method for a remolded specimen. Australian Standards Sydney Australia.
ASTM. (2002). Standard test method for California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of laboratory-compacted soils. American Society for Testing and Materials West Conshohocken.
Briaud J. L. & Seo J. (2003). Intelligent compaction: Overview and research needs. Texas USA: Texas A&M University.
Construction Geology Geotechnika a.s. TP 97. (2008). Geosynthetics in road ground bodies. Ministry of Transportation Roadways Department.
ČSN 66 6635. (1984). Determining swelling and absorption values. Proposing unified methodological procedures and instrumental equipment for geotechnical tests.
ČSN 72 1006. (2015). Soil and stone compaction control.
ČSN 73 6133. (2010). Proposing and implementing ground bodies.
Ebels L. J. Lorio R. & van der Merwe C. (2004). The importance of compaction from an historical perspective. In Proceedings of the 23rd Southern African Transport Conference (SATC 2004). Pretoria South Africa.
Geological map ČGS no. 19.
Geological map ČGS no.1968.
Geological map ČGS no. 2019.
Geological map ČGS no. 2243.
Gould S. J. F. Kodikara J. Rajeev P. Zhao X.-L. & Burn S. (2011). A void ratio—Water content—Net stress model for environmentally stabilized expansive soils. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 48(6) 867–877. doi:10.1139/t10-108.
Hogentogler C. (1936). Essentials of soil compaction. In Proceedings of the sixteenth annual meeting of the highway research board (pp. 309-316) Washington DC November 18–20 1936.
Holtz W. G. & Gibbs H. J. (1956). Engineering properties of expansive clays. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 121(1) pp. 641-677.
Horáková I. (2012). Final report IGP PŘÍBOR - SO112 - ROAD I/58 UniGEO.
Houlsby G. T. (1997). The work input to an unsaturated granular material. Géotechnique 47(1) pp. 193-196. doi: 10.1680/geot.19126.96.36.199.
Kodikara J. K. (2012). New framework for volumetric constitutive behavior of compacted unsaturated soils. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 49 pp. 1227-1243.
Kodikara J. K. Islam T. & Sounthararajah A. (2018). Review of soil compaction: History and recent developments. Transportation Geotechnics 17 pp. 24-34
Kresta F. ARCADIS Geotechnika a.s. TP 94 (2013). Soil Treatment Technical Conditions Ministry of Transportation Roadways Department.
Lawton E. C. Fragaszy R. J. & Hardcastle J. H. (1989). Collapse of compacted clayey sand. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 115(9) pp. 1252-1267.
Proctor R. (1933). Fundamental principles of soil compaction. Engineering News Record 111(9) pp. 245-248.
Project Implementation Documentation. (2009). “Road I bypass”. Rogers F. & Glendinning S. (1996). Deep Stabilization Using Lime Technology and Engineering Loughborough University Civil Building.
Suriol J. Gens A. & Alonso E. E. (2002). Volumetric behavior of a compacted soil upon wetting. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Unsaturated Soils. Recife Brasil vol. 2 pp. 619-623.
Tatsuoka F. (2015). Compaction characteristics and physical properties of compacted soil controlled by the degree of saturation. In: Keynote lecture deformation characteristics of geomaterials. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Deformation Characteristics of Geomaterials Buenos Aires pp. 40-78.
Tatsuoka F. & Gomes Correia A. (2018). Importance of controlling the degree of saturation in soil compaction linked to soil structure design. Transportation Geotechnics. doi: 10.1016/j.trgeo.2018.06.004.
Varaus M. Vébr L. Zajíček J. Fiedler J. Amendment to TP 170. (2010). Proposing Road Structures Technical Conditions. Ministry of Transportation Roadways Department.