Phytoplankton in the ecological status assessment of European lakes – advantages and constraints

  • 1 Dr Agnieszka Pasztaleniec - Department of Freshwater Assessment Methods and Monitoring, Institute of Environmental Protection – National Research Institute, Kolektorska 4 St., 01-692 Warsaw

Abstract

Although the phytoplankton indices describing the response of phytoplankton to the eutrophication have been developed and used for many years in the routine lake monitoring programme in some countries, the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) [EC, 2000] stimulated the development and improvement of quite a number of the current WFD-compliant phytoplankton-based methods. This paper is a review of the current phytoplankton-based methods for assessing the ecological status of European lakes. The particular attention was paid to the ways of solving problems arising from the need to reflect the complex and dynamic plankton algal communities on a numerical scale in order to gain reliable information about the state of the ecosystem.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • BIRK S., BONNE W., BORJA A., BRUCET S., COURRAT A., POIKANE S., SOLIMINI A. G., van de BUND W., ZAMPOUKAS N., HERING D. 2012. Three hundred ways to assess Europe’s surface waters: an almost complete overview of biological methods to implement the Water Framework Directive. Ecological Indicators 18: 31-41.

  • BLUKACZ E. A., SHUTER B. J., SPRULES W. G. 2009. Towards understanding the relationship between wind conditions and plankton patchiness. Limnol. Oceanogr. 54, 5: 1530 – 1540.

  • BORICS G., NAGY L., MIRON S., GRIGORSZKY I., LASZLO-NAGY Z., LUKACS B.A., TOTH L., VARBIRO G. 2013. Which factors affect phytoplankton biomass in shallow, eutrophic lakes? Hydrobiologia 714: 93-104.

  • BRETTUM P. 1989. Algen als Indikatoren für die Gewässerqualität in norwegischen Binnenseen Norsk institutt for vannforskning (NIVA), Oslo, Norway.

  • CALLIERI C., STOCKNER Ch. 2012. Freshwater autotrophic picoplankton; a review. J. Limnol. 61: 1–14.

  • CARLSON R. C. 1977. A trophic state index for lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 22: 361-369.

  • CARVALHO L., POIKANE S., LYCHE SOLHEIM A., PHILLIPS G., BORICS G., CATALAN J., DE HOYOS C., DRAKARE S., DUDLEY B. J., JARVINEN M., LAPLACE-TREYTURE C., MAILEHT K., MCDONALD C., MISCHKE U., MOE J., MORABITO G., NÕGES P., NÕGES T., OTT I., PASZTALENIEC A., SKJELBRED B., THACKERAY S. J. 2013a. Strength and uncertainty of phytoplankton metrics for assessing eutrophication impacts in lakes. Hydrobiologia 704:127–140.

  • CARVALHO L., MCDONALD C., DE HOYOS C., MISCHKE U., PHILLIPS G., BORICS G., POIKANE S., SKJELBRED B., LYCHE SOLHEIM A., VAN WICHELEN J., CARDOSO A. C. 2013. Sustaining recreational quality of European lakes: minimizing the health risks from algal blooms through phosphorus control. Journal of Applied Ecology 50, 2: 315-323.

  • DE HOYOS C., CATALAN J., DÖRFLINGER G., FERREIRA J., KEMITZOGLOU D., LAPLACE-TREYTURE Ch., LÓPEZ J. P., MARCHETTO A., MIHAIL O., MORABITO G., POLYKARPOU P., ROMĂO F., TSIAOUSSI V. 2014. Water Framework Directive Intercalibration Technical Report. Mediterranean Lake Phytoplankton ecological assessment methods. European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 65 pp.

  • DODSON S. I., ARNOTT S. E., COTTINGHAM K. L. 2000. The relationship in lake communities between primary productivity and species richness. Ecology, 81, 2662–2679.

  • DOKULIL M. T., PADISÁK J. 1994. Long-term compositional response of phytoplankton in a shallow, turbid environment, Neusiedlersee, Austria/Hungary. Hydrobiologia 275/276:125-137.

  • DOKULIL M. T., TEUBNER K., GREISBERGER M. 2005. Typenspezifische Referenzbedin-gungen für die integrierende Bewertung des ökologischen Zustandes stehender Gewässer Österreichs gemäß der EU-Wasserrahmenrichtlinie. Modul 1: Die Bewertung der Phytoplanktonstruktur nach dem Brettum-Index. Projektstudie Phase 3, Abschlussbericht. Unpublizierter Bericht im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft, Wien.

  • DOKULIL M. T., TEUBNER K. 2006. Bewertung der Phytoplanktonstruktur stehender Gewässer gemäß der EU-Wasserrahmenrichtlinie: Der modifizierte Brettum-Index. - Dt. Ges. Limnol. (DGL), Tagungsbericht 2005 (Karlsruhe), 356-360, Werder.

  • DOMINIGUES R. B., BARBOSA A., GALVÃO H. 2008. Constraints on the use of phytoplankton as a biological quality element within the Water Framework Directive in Portuguese waters. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 56, 8:1389-1395.

  • EC 2000. Directive 2000/60 of the European Parliament and the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy. OJEC L 327/1.

  • ELORANTA P. 1986. Phytoplankton structure in different lake types in central Finland. Holarctic Ecology, 9: 214-224.

  • FELIP M., CATALAN J. 2000. The relationship between phytoplankton biovolume and chlorophyll in a deep oligotrophic lake: decoupling in their spatial and temporal maxima, Journal of Plankton Research 22, 1: 91-105.

  • FREE G., LITTLE R., TIERNEY D., DONNELLY K., CARONI R. 2006. A reference based typology and ecological assessment system for Irish lakes. Preliminary investigations. Wexford, Ireland, 266 pp..

  • FÖLSTER J., JOHNSON R. K., FUTTER M. N., WILANDER A. 2014. The Swedish monitoring of surface waters: 50 years of adaptive monitoring. Ambio. 43(Suppl 1): 3–18.

  • HILLBRICHT-ILKOWSKA A., KAJAK Z. 1986. Parameters and indices useful in controlling functional and structural changes in lakes undergoing eutrophication – In: Monitoring of lake ecosystems (Ed.) A. Hillbricht-Ilkowska, Zesz. Nauk. PAN „Człowiek i Środowisko”, Wrocław, Warszawa, Kraków, Gdańsk, Łódź, 23-45. (in Polish, English summary)

  • HONTI M., ISTVÁNOVICS V., OSZTOICS A. 2007. Stability and change of phytoplankton communities in a highly dynamic environment - the case of large, shallow Lake Balaton (Hungary). Hydrobiologia 581: 225–240.

  • HÖRNSTRÖM E. 1981. Trophic characterization of lakes by means of qualitative phytoplankton analysis. Limnologica 13, 2: 249-261.

  • HUISMAN J., MATTHIJS P. M., VISSER P. M. (eds) 2005. Harmful cyanobacteria. Springer SBM, Heidelberg, 243 pp.

  • HUTCHINSON G. E. 1944. Limnological studies in Connecticut. VII. A critical examination of the supposed relationship between phytoplankton periodicity and chemical changes in lake waters. Ecology 26: 3-26.

  • HUTOROWICZ A., PASZTALENIEC A. 2014. Phytoplankton metric of ecological status assessment for Polish Lakes and its performance along nutrient gradients. Pol. J. Ecol. 62: 525–542.

  • JÄRNEFELT H. 1952. Plankton als Indikator der Trophiegruppen der Seen. – Annales Academia Scientarium Fennica A IV. Biology 18: 1–29.

  • JÄRNEFELT H. 1956. Zur Limnologie einiger Gewässer Finnlands. XVI. Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Planktons. Ann. Zool. Soc. ‘Vancimo’ 17: 1–201.

  • KASPRZAK P., PADISÁK J., KOSCHEL R., KRIENITZ L., GERVAIS F. 2008. Chlorophyll a concentration across a trophic gradient of lakes: An estimator of phytoplankton biomass. Limnologica, 38: 327–338.

  • KAWECKA B., ELORANTA P. 1994. Zarys ekologii glonów wód słodkich i środowisk lądowych. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa, 252 pp.

  • KRATZER Ch. R., BREZONIK P. L. 1981. A Carlson-type trophic state index for nitrogen in Florida lakes. Water Resources Bulletin17, 4: 713-715.

  • KUDELSKA D., CYDZIK D., SOSZKA H. 1983. System oceny jakości jezior. Instytut Kształtowania Środowiska, Warszawa, 44 pp.

  • KUDELSKA D., SOSZKA H., CYDZIK D. 1997. Polish practice in lake quality assessment. In: Freshwater Quality: Defining the Indefinable? Edit. Boon P. J., Howell D. L. Scottish Natural Heritage, Edinburgh, 149-154.

  • KUFEL L. 1999. Dimictic versus polymictic masurian lakes: similarities and differences in chlorophyll-nutrients–SD relationships. Hydrobiologia 408/409: 389–394.

  • LAMPERT W., SOMMER U. 2001. Ekologia wód śródlądowych. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa, 415 pp.

  • LYCHE SOLHEIM A., FELD C. K., BIRK S., PHILLIPS G., CARVALHO L., MORABITO G., MISCHKE U., WILLBY N., SØNDERGAARD M., HELLSTEN S., KOLADA A., MJELDE M., BÖHMER J., MILER O., PUSCH M., ARGILLIER C., JEPPESEN E., LAURIDSEN T., POIKANE S. 2013. Ecological status assessment of European lakes: a comparison of metrics for phytoplankton, macrophytes, benthic invertebrates and fish. Hydrobiologia 704: 57-74.

  • LYCHE SOLHEIM A., PHILLIPS G., DRAKARE S., FREE G., JÄRVINEN M., SKJELBRED B., TIERNEY D., TRODD W. 2014. Water Framework Directive Intercalibration Technical Report. Northern Lake Phytoplankton ecological assessment methods. European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 254 pp.

  • MALONE T. C. 1980. Algal size, In Morris (ed.), The Physiological Ecology of Phytoplankton. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 433-463.

  • MENAY M., LAPLACE-TREYTURE C. 2011. Ecological status assessment of French water bodies: the phytoplankton index of lakes – IPLAC. Method description. Version 1. 16 p.

  • MISCHKE U., RIEDMÜLLER U., HOEHN E. SCHÖNFELDER I., NIXDORF B. 2008. Description of the German system for phytoplankton-based assessment of lakes for implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). In: Gewässerreport 10, Edit. Mischke, U., Nixdorf B., Aktuelle Reihe 2/2008 ISBN 978-3-940471-06-2: 117-146 p., University Cottbus. Link: http://opus.kobv.de/btu/volltexte/2009/953/

  • MISCHKE U., CARVALHO L., MCDONALD C., SKJELBRED B., LYCHE SOLHEIM A., PHILLIPS G., DE HOYOS C., BORICS G., MOE J., PAHISSA J. 2011. Deliverable D3. 1-2: Report on phytoplankton bloom metrics. Project WISER. 48pp. link: www.igb-berlin.de/IGB-Publikationen/Mischke_2011_r_WISER.pdf

  • NAUMANN E. 1919. Aspects on the ecology of limnoplankton with special focus on phytoplankton. Svensk Bot. Tidskr 13:51–58. (In Swedish)

  • NIXDORF B., HOEHN E., RIEDMÜLLER U., MISCHKE U., SCHÖNFELDER I. 2010. III-4.3.1. Probenahme und Analyse des Phytoplanktons in Seen und Flüssen zur ökologischen Bewertung gemäß der EU-WRRL. In: Handbuch Angewandte Limnologie – 27. Erg.Lfg. 4, 10: 1-24. ISBN 3-527-32131.

  • MOSS B. 2007. Shallow lakes, the water framework directive and life. What should it all be about? Hydrobiologia, 584: 381-394.

  • NÕGES P., NÕGES T. 2006. Indicators and criteria to assess ecological status of the large temperate polymictic lakes Peipsi (Estonia/Russia) and Võrtsjõrv (Estonia). Boreal Environment Research 11: 67-80.

  • NYGAARD G. 1949. Hydrobiological studies on some Danish ponds and lakes II. The quotient hypothesis on some new or little known phytoplankton organisms. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab 7: 293 pp.

  • OECD, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 1982. Eutrophication of waters: monitoring, assessment and control. OECD. Paris.

  • OTT I., KÕIV T., NÕGES P., KISAND A., JÄRVALT A., KIRT E. 2005. General description of partly meromictic hypertrophic Lake Verevi, its ecological status, changes during the past eight decades and restoration problems. Hydrobiologia 547:1-20.

  • OTT I., LAUGASTE R. 1996. Fütoplanktoni koondindeks (FKI), üldistus Eesti järvede kohta. Eesti Keskkonnaministeeriumi infoleht 3: 7–8.

  • PADISÁK, J., BORICS G., GRIGORSZKY I., SORÓCZKI-PINTÉR E. 2006. Use of phytoplankton assemblages for monitoring ecological status of lakes within the Water Framework Directive: the assemblage index. Hydrobiologia 553: 1-14.

  • PEARSAL W. H. 1932. Phytoplankton in the English lakes. II. The composition of the phytoplankton in relation to dissolved substances. J. Ecol. 20: 241-262.

  • PHILLIPS G., LYCHE SOLHEIM A., SKJELBRED B., MISCHKE U., DRAKARE S., FREE G. JÄRVINEN M., DE HOYOS C., MORABITO G., POIKANE S., CARVALHO L. 2013. A phytoplankton trophic index to assess the status of lakes for the Water Framework Directive. Hydrobiologia 704, 1: 75-95.

  • PHILLIPS G., FREE G., KAROTTKI I., LAPLACE-TREYTURE Ch., MAILEHT K., MISCHKE U., OTT I., PASZTALENIEC A., PORTIELJE R., SØNDERGAARD M., TRODD W., VAN WICHELEN J. 2014. Water Framework Directive Intercalibration Technical Report. Northern Lake Phytoplankton ecological assessment methods. European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 186 pp.

  • POBEL D., ROBIN J., HUMBERT J.-F. 2011. Influence of sampling strategies on monitoring of cyanobacteria in shallow lakes Lessons from a case study in France. Water Research 45: 1005-1014.

  • POIKANE S., ALVES M., ARGILLIER C., VAN DEN BERG M., BUZZI F., HOEHN E., DE HOYOS C., KAROTTKI I., LAPLACE-TREYTURE C., LYCHE SOLHEIM A., ORTIZ-CASAS J., OTT I., PHILLIPS G., PILKE A., PÁDUA J., REMEC-REKAR S., RIEDMÜLLER U., SCHAUMBURG J., SERRANO M. L., SOSZKA H., TIERNEY D., URBANIC G., WOLFRAM G. 2010. Defining chlorophyll a reference conditions in European lakes. Environmental Management 45: 1286–1298.

  • PTACNIK R., SOLIMINI A., BRETTUM P. 2009. Performance of a new phytoplankton composition metric along a eutrophication gradient in Nordic lakes. Hydrobiologia 633: 75-82.

  • REYNOLDS C. S. 1980. Phytoplankton assemblages and their periodicity in stratifying lake ecosystems. Holarctic Ecology 3: 141-159.

  • REYNOLDS C. S. 1984. Phytoplankton periodicity: interactions of form, function and environmental variability. Freshwater Biology 14:111-142.

  • REYNOLDS C. S. 2000. Understanding the assembly of phytoplankton in relation to the trophic spectrum: where are we now? Hydrobiologia 424: 147-152.

  • REYNOLDS C. S. 2006. Ecology of phytoplankton. Cambridge University Press, 535 pp.

  • ROSÉN G. 1981. Phytoplankton indicators and their relations to certain chemical and physical factors. Limnologica 13: 2263–2290.

  • ROTT H. E. 1984. Phytoplankton as biological parameter for the trophic characterization of lakes. Verh. int. Ver. Limnol. 22: 1078-1085.

  • SALMASO N., MORABITO G., BUZZI F., GARIBALDI L., MARCO M., MOSELLO R. 2006. Phytoplankton as an indicator of the water quality of the deep lakes south of the Alps. Hydrobiologia 563: 167-187.

  • SAND-JENSEN K., SØNDERGAARD M. 1981. Phytoplankton and epiphyte development and their shading effect on submerged macrophytes in lakes of different nutrient status. Internationale Revue Der Gesamten Hydrobiologie 66: 529-552.

  • SEPA 2010. Status, potential and quality requirements for lakes, watercourses, coastal and transitional waters – A handbook on how quality requirements in bodies of surface water can be determined and monitored. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency Handbook 2007 4: 62 pp.

  • SOMMER U., GLIWICZ Z. M., LAMPERT W., DUNCAN A. 1986. The PEG-model of seasonal succession of planktonic events in freshwaters. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 106: 433-471.

  • SØNDERGAARD M., LARSEN S. E., JORGENSEN T. B., JEPPESEN E. 2011. Using chlorophyll a and cyanobacteria in the ecological classification of lakes. Ecological Indicators 11: 1403-1412.

  • SPODNIEWSKA I. 1978. Phytoplankton as the indicator of lake eutrophication. I. Summer situation in 34 Masurian lakes in 1973. Ecol. Pol. 26: 53-70.

  • THIENEMANN A. 1918. Lebensgemeinschaft und Lebens-raum. Naturwissenschaftliche Wochenschrift, Neue Folge 17: 281–290, 297–303.

  • TRIFONOVA I.S. 1989. Changes in community structure and productivity of phytoplankton as indicators of lake and reservoir eutrophication. Arch. Hydrobiol. Beih. 33: 363-371.

  • THUNMARK S. 1945. Zur Soziologie des Süßsswasserplanktons. Eine methodisch ökologische Studie. Folia Limnologica Skandinvaica 3: 1–66.

  • UTERMÖHL H. 1958. Zur Vervollkommnung der quantitativen Phytoplankton-Methodik. Internationale Vereinigung für theoretishe und angewandte Limnologie, Mitteilungen, 9: 1-38.

  • VALLENTYNE J. R., BEETON A. M. 1988. The ‘Ecosystem’ Approach to Managing Human Uses and Abuses of Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Basin. Environment Conservation 15: 58-62.

  • VOLLENWEIDER R. A. 1968. Scientific fundamentals of the eutrophication of lakes and flowing waters, with particular reference to nitrogen and phosphorus as factors in eutrophication. DAS/CSIO/68.27, OECD, Paris, 192 pp.

  • VÖRÖS L., CALLIERI C., BALOGH K. V., BERTONI R. 1998. Freshwater picocyanobacteria along a trophic gradient and light quality range. Hydrobiologia 369/370: 117-125.

  • VUORI K. M., MITIKKA S., VUORISTO H. (eds) 2010. Guidance on ecological classification of surface waters in Finland. Part I: Reference conditions and classification criteria, Part II: Environmental impact assessment. Environmental Administration Guidelines 3/2009. 120 pp. (in Finnish with English abstract).

  • WILLÉN E. 1979. Water quality and phytoplankton in two large Swedish lakes. Acta Bot. Fenn. 110: 81–85.

  • WILLÉN E. 2007. Växtplankton i sjöar, Bedömningsgrunder, Institutionen för Miljöanalys, Rapport 2007: 6.

  • WOLFRAM G., ARGILLIER C., DE BORTOLI J., BUZZI F., DALMIGLIO A., DOKULIL M. T., HOEHN E., MARCHETTO A., MARTINEZ P. J., MORABITO G., REICHMANN M., REMEC-REKAR Š., RIEDMÜLLER U., RIOURY C., SCHAUMBURG J., SCHULZ L., URBANIČ G. 2009. Reference conditions and WFD compliant class boundaries for phytoplankton biomass and chlorophyll-a in Alpine lakes. Hydrobiologia 633: 45–58.

  • WOLFRAM G., BUZZI F., DOKULIL M., FRIEDL M., HOEHN E., LAPLACE-TREYTURE Ch., MENAY M., MARCHETTO A., MORABITO G., REICHMANN M., REMEC-REKAR Š., RIEDMÜLLER U., URBANIČ G. 2014. Water Framework Directive Intercalibration Technical Report. Alpine Lake Phytoplankton ecological assessment methods European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 65 pp.

  • WOLFRAM G., DONABAUM K., DOKULIL M. T. 2011. Bewertung des ökologischen Zu-standes des Neusiedler Sees anhand des Biologischen Qualitätselements Phytoplankton. Un-publizierter Bericht im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft, Wien, 63 pp. Bericht-Nr. 09/017-B01.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search