Nesting success and productivity of the Common Barn-owl Tyto alba: results from a nest box installation and long-term breeding monitoring program in Southern Hungary

Open access

Abstract

In this study, the results of a long-term nest box installation program of the Common Barn-owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) in Southern Hungary were evaluated, which program was conducted during a 24-year period (1995–2018). The percentages of occupied nest boxes ranged from 9.72 to 73.44% in the first breeding periods while this varied between 0 and 41.46% in the case of repeated clutches in the same nest boxes with second broods. A total of 1,265 breeding attempts were recorded including 1,020 (80.63%) in the first and 245 (19.36%) in the second breeding periods, from which a total of 210 (16.6%) clutches did not produce any fledglings. The modal clutch size was 7 eggs in both first and second annual clutches. However, the value of productivity was higher in the case of larger clutch sizes and we found significant linear relationship between initial clutch size and fledgling production per nesting attempt in both breeding periods. Significant variation of reproductive parameters was observed among the years. The proportion of egg loss showed significant decline, while the change of hatching success and the variation of annual productivity showed significant slight positive linear trend during the 24 years. Our results suggested that despite the outlier values of reproduction characteristics in the extreme years with negative effect, a relatively stable Common Barn-owl population can be maintained by the placement of nest boxes in the investigated region.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Albert C. A. Wilson L. K. Mineau P. Trudeau S. & Elliott J. E. 2010. Anticoagulant rodenticides in three owl species from western Canada 1988–2003. – Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 58(2): 451–459. DOI: 10.1007/s00244-009-9402-z

  • Almasi B. Béziers P. Roulin A. & Jenni L. 2015. Agricultural land use and human presence around breeding sites increase stress-hormone levels and decrease body mass in Barn Owl nestlings. – Oecologia 179(1): 89–101. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-015-3318-2

  • Altwegg R. Schaub M. & Roulin A. 2006a Age-specific fitness components and their temporal variation in the Barn Owl. – American Naturalist 169: 47–61. DOI: 10.1086/510215

  • Altwegg R. Roulin A. & Kestenholz M. 2006b Demographic effects of extreme winter weather in the Barn Owl. – Oecologia 149: 44–51. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-006-0430-3

  • Andrusiak L. A. & Cheng K. M. 1997. Breeding biology of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. – In: Duncan J. R. Johnson D. H. & Nicholls T. H. (eds.) Biology and conservation of owls in the Northern Hemisphere. Second international symposium. MA USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NC-190 Winnipeg pp. 38–46.

  • Arlettaz R. Krähenbühl M. Almasi B. Roulin A. & Schaub M. 2010. Wildflower areas within revitalized agricultural matrices boost small mammal populations but not breeding Barn Owls. – Journal of Ornithology 151: 553–564. DOI: 10.1007/s10336-009-0485-0

  • Askew N. P. Searle J. B. & Moore N. P. 2007. Prey selection in a Barn Owl Tyto alba: Capsule a breeding Barn Owl selected vole-rich habitats for hunting at both a microhabitat and landscape scale. – Bird Study 54(1): 130–132. DOI: 10.1080/00063650709461465

  • Bank L. 1990. Az 1985–86. évi gyöngybagoly (Tyto alba Scop. 1769) felmérés eredményei Baranya megyében [Estimation of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba Scop. 1769) population in Baranya county 1985–1986]. – Aquila 96–97: 113–126. (in Hungarian with English Summary)

  • Baudvin H. 1978. Le cannibalisme chez l’Effraie Tyto alba [Cannibalism at the Barn Owl Tyto alba]. – Nos Oiseaux 34: 223–231. (in French)

  • Baudvin H. 1979. Les secondes nichées chex la Chouette Effraie (Tyto alba) en Conte-d’Or [The second clutches of the Barn Owl Tyto alba]. – Nos Oiseanx 35: 125–134. (in French)

  • Baudvin H. 1986. La reproduction de la Chouette Effraie (Tyto alba) [The reproduction of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba)]. – Le Jean-la-Blanc 25: 1–125. (in French)

  • Baudvin H. & Jouaire S. 2001. Breeding biology of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in Burgundy (France): a 25 year study (1971–1995). – Buteo 12: 5–12.

  • Béziers P. & Roulin A. 2016. Double brooding and offspring desertion in the Barn Owl Tyto alba. – Journal of Avian Biology 47(2): 235–244. DOI: 10.1111/jav.00800

  • BirdLife International 2004. Birds in Europe: Population Estimates Trends and Conservation Status. – BirdLife International Cambridge U.K.

  • Bond G. Burnside N. G. Metcalfe D. J. Scott D. M. & Blamire J. 2005. The effects of land-use and landscape structure on Barn Owl (Tyto alba) breeding success in southern England UK. – Landscape Ecology 20(5): 555–566. DOI: 10.1007/s10980-004-5037-7

  • Borda-de-Água L. Grilo C. & Pereira H. M. 2014. Modeling the impact of road mortality on Barn Owl (Tyto alba) populations using age-structured models. – Ecological Modelling 276: 29–37. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecol-model.2013.12.022

  • Boves T. J. & Belthoff J. R. 2012. Roadway mortality of Barn Owls in Idaho USA. – The Journal of Wildlife Management 76(7): 1381–392. DOI: 10.1002/jwmg.378

  • Boyce M. S. & Perrins C. M. 1987. Optimizing Great Tit clutch size in a fluctuating environment. – Ecology 68(1): 142–153. DOI: 10.2307/1938814

  • Braaksma S. & de Bruijn O. 1976. De kerkuilstand in Nederland. – Limosa 49: 135–187.

  • Bunn D. S. Warburton A. B. & Wilson R. D. S. 1982. The Barn Owl. – T & AD Poyser London U.K.

  • Charter M. Izhaki I. & Leshem Y. 2010a Effects of the risk of competition and predation on large secondary cavity breeders. – Journal of Ornithology 151(4): 791–795. DOI: 10.1007/s10336-010-0514-z

  • Charter M. Meyrom K. Leshem Y. Aviel S. Izhaki I. & Motro Y. 2010b Does nest box location and orientation affect occupation rate and breeding success of Barn Owls Tyto alba in a semi-arid environment? – Acta Ornithologica 45: 115–119. DOI: 10.3161/000164510X516164

  • Charter M. Leshem Y. Meyrom K. Peleg O. & Roulin A. 2012. The importance of micro-habitat in the breeding of Barn Owls Tyto alba. – Bird Study 59(3): 368–371. DOI: 10.1080/00063657.2012.669360

  • Charter M. Izhaki I. Leshem Y. Meyrom K. & Roulin A. 2015. Relationship between diet and reproductive success in the Israeli Barn Owl. – Journal of Arid Environments 122: 59–63. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2015.06.011

  • Charter M. Izhaki I. Meyrom K. Aviel S. Leshem Y. & Roulin A. 2017. The relationship between weather and reproduction of the Barn Owl Tyto alba in a semi-arid agricultural landscape in Israel. – Avian Biology Research 10(4): 253–258. DOI: 10.3184/175815617X15063340995365

  • Chausson A. Henry I. Almasi B. & Roulin A. 2014a Barn Owl (Tyto alba) breeding biology in relation to breeding season climate. – Journal of Ornithology 155(1): 273–281. DOI: 10.1007/s10336-013-1012-x

  • Chausson A. Henry I. Ducret B. Almasi B. & Roulin A. 2014b Tawny Owl Strix aluco as an indicator of Barn Owl Tyto alba breeding biology and the effect of winter severity on Barn Owl reproduction. – Ibis 156(2): 433–441. DOI: 10.1111/ibi.12148

  • Colvin B. A. 1985. Common Barn-owl population decline in Ohio and the relationship to agricultural trends. – Journal of Field Ornithology 56(3): 224–235.

  • de Bruijn O. 1994. Population ecology and conservation of the Barn Owl Tyto alba in farmland habitats in Liemers and Achterhoek (The Netherlands). – Ardea 82: 1–109. DOI: 10.5253/078.097.0407

  • David P. G. 1996. Nesting and food habitats of Barn Owls in south Florida. –The Florida Field Naturalist 24: 93–100.

  • De Jong J. 2009. The recovery of the Barn Owl Tyto alba in Friesland northern Netherlands: population growth in relation to landscape features. – Ardea 97(4): 445–453. DOI: 10.5253/078.097.0407

  • De Jong J. van den Burg A. & Liosi A. 2018. Determinants of traffic mortality of Barn Owls (Tyto alba) in Friesland The Netherlands. – Avian Conservation and Ecology 13(2): 2. DOI: 10.5751/ACE-01201-130202

  • Fajardo I. 2001. Monitoring non-natural mortality in the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) as an indicator of land use and social awareness in Spain. – Biological Conservation 97(2): 143–149. DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00091-4

  • Frey C. Sonnay C. Dreiss A. & Roulin A. 2011. Habitat breeding performance diet and individual age in Swiss Barn Owls (Tyto alba). – Journal of Ornithology 152: 279–290. DOI: 10.1007/s10336-010-0579-8

  • Geduhn A. Esther A. Schenke D. Gabriel D. & Jacob J. 2016. Prey composition modulates exposure risk to anticoagulant rodenticides in a sentinel predator the Barn Owl. – Science of the Total Environment 544: 150–157. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.11.117

  • Gill F. & Donsker D. 2018. IOC World Bird List (v 8.1). – DOI: 10.14344/ioc.ml.8.1.

  • Golawski A. Kasprzykowski Z. & Kowalski M. 2003. The occurrence of the Barn Owl Tyto alba in sacred buildings in central-eastern Poland. – Ornis Hungarica 12–13: 275–279.

  • Gray A. Eadsforth C. V. Dutton A. J. & Vaughan J. A. 1994. The toxicity of three second-generation rodenticides to Barn Owls. – Pest Management Science 42(3): 179–184. DOI: 10.1002/ps.2780420307

  • Gubanyi J. A. Case R. M. & Wingfield G. 1992. Diet and nesting success of Barn Owls breeding in western Nebraska. – American Midland Naturalist 127: 224–232. DOI: 10.2307/2426528

  • Hamilton K. 1980. Cannibalism and possible fratricide in juvenile Barn Owls. – Texas Journal of Science 32(2): 175–175.

  • Heath M. Borggreve C. Peet N. & Hagemeijer W. 2000. European Bird Populations: Estimates and Trends. – Birdlife Conservation Series No. 10. Birdlife International Cambridge U.K.

  • Hindmarch S. Krebs E. A. Elliott J. E. & Green D. J. 2012. Do landscape features predict the presence of Barn Owls in a changing agricultural landscape? – Landscape and Urban Planning 107(3): 255–262. DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.06.010

  • Hindmarch S. Krebs E. A. Elliott J. & Green D. J. 2014. Urban development reduces fledging success of Barn Owls in British Columbia Canada. – The Condor: 116(4): 507–517. DOI: 10.1650/CONDOR-13-052.1

  • Horváth G. 1999. A gyöngybagoly (Tyto alba Scop. 1769) köpetvizsgálatának tíz éve Baranya megyében (1985–1994) [Ten years of Barn Owl (Tyto alba Scop. 1769) pellet analysis in county Baranya (1985–1994)]. – Állattani Közlemények 84: 63–77. (in Hungarian with English Summary)

  • Horváth A. Morvai A. & Horváth G. F. 2018. Food-niche pattern of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in intensively cultivated agricultural landscape. – Ornis Hungarica 26(1): 27–40. DOI: 10.1515/orhu-2018-0002

  • Hope R. M. 2016. Rmisc: Ryan miscellaneous. R package version 1.5. URL: https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=Rmisc

  • Jacob J. Manson P. Barfknecht R. & Fredricks T. 2014. Common Vole (Microtus arvalis) ecology and management: implications for risk assessment of plant protection products. – Pest Management Science 70(6): 869–878. DOI: 10.7325/Galemys.2016.A2

  • Johnson P. N. 1994. Selection and use of nest sites by Barn Owls in Norfolk England. – Journal of Raptor Research 28(3): 149–153.

  • Kan I. Motro Y. Horvitz N. Kimhi A. Leshem Y. Yom-Tov Y. & Nathan R. 2013. Agricultural rodent control using Barn Owls: is it profitable? – American Journal of Agricultural Economics 96(3): 733–752. DOI: 10.1093/ajae/aat097

  • Kassinis N. & Roulin A. 2017. Reproduction of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in Cyprus (Aves: Strigiformes). – Zoology in the Middle East 63(4): 369–371. DOI: 10.1080/09397140.2017.1331588

  • Klein Á. Nagy T. Csörgő T. & Mátics R. 2007. Exterior nest-boxes may negatively affect Barn Owl Tyto alba survival: an ecological trap. – Bird Conservation International 17(3): 273–281. DOI: 10.1017/S0959270907000792

  • Klok C. & De Roos A. M. 2007. Effects of vole fluctuations on the population dynamics of the Barn Owl Tyto alba. – Acta Biotheoretica 55: 227–241. DOI: 10.1007/s10441-007-9013-x

  • Klomp H. 1970. The determination of clutch-size in birds a review. – Ardea 55(1–2): 1–125.

  • Kross S. M. Bourbour R. P. & Martinico B. L. 2016. Agricultural land use Barn Owl diet and vertebrate pest control implications. – Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 223: 167–174. DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2016.03.002

  • Kaus D. 1977. Zur Populationsdynamik Ökologie und Brutbiologie der Schleiereule Tyto alba in Franken [On the population dynamics ecology and breeding biology of the Barn Owl Tyto alba in Franconia]. – Anzeiger der Ornithologische Gesellschaft in Bayern 16: 18–44. (in German with English Summary)

  • Lack D. 1947. The significance of clutch-size. I and II. – Ibis 89: 302–352. DOI: 10.1111/j.1474-919X.1947.tb04155.x

  • Lack D. 1954. The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers. – Clarendon Press Oxford

  • Lambin X. Bretagnolle V. & Yoccoz N. G. 2006. Vole population cycles in northern and southern Europe: is there a need for different explanations for single pattern? – Journal of Animal Ecology 75: 340–349. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2656.2006.01051.x

  • Leech D. I. Shawyer C. R. Barimore C. J. & Crick H. Q. P. 2009. The Barn Owl monitoring programme: establishing a protocol to assess temporal and spatial variation in productivity at a national scale. – Ardea 97: 421–428. DOI: 10.5253/078.097.0404

  • Lemon J. 2006. Plotrix: a package in the red light district of R. – R-News 6: 8–12.

  • Lenton G. M. 1984. The feeding and breeding ecology of Barn Owls Tyto alba in peninsular Malaysia. – Ibis 126(4): 551–575. DOI: 10.1111/j.1474-919X.1984.tb02080.x

  • Liébana M. S. Sarasola J. H. & Santillán M. Á. 2013. Nest-box occupancy by neotropical raptors in a native forest of central Argentina. – Journal of Raptor Research 47(2): 208–214. DOI: 10.3356/JRR-12-51.1

  • Looman S. J. Shirley D. L. & White C. M. 1996. Productivity food habits and associated variables of Barn Owls utilizing nest boxes in north central Utah. – Great Basin Naturalist 56(1): 73–84.

  • Mahmood-Ul-Hassan M. Beg M. A. Mushtaq-Ul-Hassan M. Mirza H. A. & Siddique M. 2007. Nesting and diet of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in Pakistan. – Journal of Raptor Research 41(2): 122–130. DOI: 10.3356/0892-1016(2007)41[122:NADOTB]2.0.CO;2

  • Mainwaring M. C. 2011. The use of nestboxes by roosting birds during the non-breeding season: a review of the costs and benefits. – Ardea 99(2): 167–177. DOI: 10.5253/078.099.0206

  • Mainwaring M. C. 2015. The use of man-made structures as nesting sites by birds: A review of the costs and benefits. – Journal for Nature Conservation 25: 17–22. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnc.2015.02.007

  • Marti C. D. 1994. Barn Owl reproduction: patterns and variation near the limit of the species’ distribution. – The Condor 96(2): 468–484. DOI: 10.2307/1369329

  • Marti C. D. 1997. Lifetime reproductive success in Barn Owls near the limit of the species’ range. – The Auk 114(4): 581–592. DOI: 10.2307/4089277

  • Marti C. D. Wagner P. W. & Denne K. W. 1979. Nest boxes for the management of Barn Owls. – Wildlife Society Bulletin 7(3): 145–148.

  • Marti C. D. & Wagner P. W. 1985. Winter mortality in Common Barn-owls and its effect on population density and reproduction. – The Condor 87(1): 111–115. DOI: 10.2307/1367142

  • Martin J. M. Branch L. C. Raid R. N. & Beyeler S. C. 2010. Temporal instability of agricultural habitat reduces reproductive success of Barn Owl s (Tyto alba). – Auk 127: 909–916. DOI: 10.1525/auk.2010.09211

  • Martínez J. A. & López G. 1999. Breeding ecology of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in Valencia (SE Spain). – Journal für Ornithologie 140(1): 93–99. DOI: 10.1007/BF02462093

  • Martínez J. A. & Zuberogoitia I. 2004. Habitat preferences and causes of population decline for Barn Owls Tyto alba: a multi-scale approach. – Ardeola 51(2): 303–317.

  • Mátics R. Bank L. Varga S. Klein A. & Hoffmann G. 2008. Interspecific offspring killing in owls. – Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 95(3): 488–494. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2008.01064.x

  • Mátics R. Hoffmann G. Farkas S. Dawson D. Frantz A. Varga D. Mátics E. & Klein Á. 2017. Demographic decline and detection of genetic bottleneck in a population of Barn Owl Tyto alba in Hungary. – Journal of Ornithology 158(3): 811–821. DOI: 10.1007/s10336-017-1433-z

  • McCafferty D. J. Moncrieff J. B. & Taylor I. R. 2001. How much energy do Barn Owls (Tyto alba) save by roosting? – Journal of Thermal Biology 26: 193–203. DOI: 10.1016/S0306-4565(00)00042-5

  • Meek W. R. Burman P. J. Nowakowski M. Sparks T. H. Hill R. A. Swetnam R. D. & Burman N. J. 2009. Habitat does not influence breeding performance in a long-term Barn Owl Tyto alba study. – Bird Study 56(3): 369–380. DOI: 10.1080/00063650902937339

  • Meyrom K. Leshem Y. & Charter M. 2008. Barn Owl Tyto alba breeding success in man-made structures in the Jordan Rift valley Israel. – Sandgrouse 30: 134–137.

  • Meyrom K. Motro Y. Leshem Y. Aviel S. Izhaki I. Argyle F. & Charter M. 2009. Nest-box use by the Barn Owl Tyto alba in a biological pest control program in the Beit She’an valley Israel. – Ardea 97(4): 463–468. DOI: 10.5253/078.097.0410

  • Milchev B. & Gruychev G. 2014. Breeding distribution and nest site diversity of Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in the context of restoration of agricultural sector in Central South Bulgaria. – Ornis Hungarica 22(1): 69–75. DOI: 10.2478/orhu-2014-0012

  • Mock D. W. 1985. Siblicidal brood reduction: the prey-size hypothesis. – The American Naturalist 125(3): 327–343. DOI: 10.1086/284346

  • Møller A. P. 1994. Facts and artefacts in nest-box studies: implications for studies of birds of prey. – Journal of Raptor Research 28: 143–148.

  • Müller Y. 1990. Chevauchement des nidifications successives chez la Chouette Effraie (Tyto aba) [Overlap of successive breeding attempts in the Barn Owl (Tyto aba)]. – Alauda 58: 217–220. (in French with English Summary)

  • Newton I. Wyllie I. Gray A. & Eadsforth C. V. 1994. The toxicity of the rodenticide flocoumafen to Barn Owls and its elimination via pellets. – Pest Management Science 41(3): 187–193. DOI: 10.1002/ps.2780410304

  • Partridge L. & Harvey P. H. 1988. The ecological context of life history evolution. – Science 241: 1449–1455. DOI: 10.1126/science.241.4872.1449

  • Pavluvčík P. Poprach K. Machar I. Losík J. Gouveia A. & Tkadlec E. 2015. Barn Owl productivity response to variability of vole populations. – PloS One 10(12): e0145851. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145851

  • Paz A. Jareño D. Arroyo L. Viñuela J. Arroyo B. Mougeot F. Luque-Larena J. J. & Fargallo J. A. 2013. Avian predators as a biological control system of Common Vole (Microtus arvalis) populations in north-western Spain: experimental set-up and preliminary results. – Pest Management Science 69(3): 444–450. DOI: 10.1002/ps.3289

  • Percival S. M. 1991. Population trends in British Barn Owls: a review of some possible causes. – British Wildlife 2: 131–140.

  • Perrins C. M. & Moss D. 1975. Reproductive rates in the Great Tit. – Journal of Animal Ecology 44(3): 695–706. DOI: 10.2307/3712

  • Petty S. J. Shaw G. & Anderson D. I. K. 1994. Value of nest boxes for population studies and conservation of owls in coniferous forests in Britain. – Journal of Raptor Research 28(3): 134–142.

  • Poprach K. 1996. Hnízdní biologie a zmeny pocetnosti sovy pálené (Tyto alba) v okrese Olomouc [Breeding biology and changes in abundance of Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in Olomouc district (Czech Republic)]. – Buteo 8: 39–80. (in Czech with English Summary)

  • R Core Team 2017. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. – R Foundation for Statistical Computing Vienna Austria. URL: https://www.R-project.org/

  • Radley P. M. & Bednarz J. C. 2005. Artificial nest structure use and reproductive success of Barn Owls in northeastern Arkansas. – Journal of Raptor Research 39(1): 74–79.

  • Roulin A. 2002a Barn Owl. – BWP Update: Journal of the Birds of the Western Palearctic 4: 115–138. DOI: 10.1007/0-306-47660-6_6

  • Roulin A. 2002b Short-and long-term fitness correlates of rearing conditions in Barn Owls Tyto alba. – Ardea 90(2): 259–267.

  • Roulin A. 2002c The sibling negotiation hypothesis. – In: Wright J. & Leonard M. L. (eds.) The Evolution of Begging: Competition Cooperation and Communication Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic pp. 107–126.

  • Roulin A. 2004. Effects of hatching asynchrony on sibling negotiation begging jostling for position and within-brood food allocation in the Barn Owl Tyto alba. – Evolutionary Ecology Research 6(7): 1083–1098.

  • Roulin A. & Dreiss A. N. 2012. Sibling competition and cooperation over parental care. – In: Royle N. R. Smiseth P. R. & Kölliker M. (eds.) The evolution of parental care. Oxford University Press pp. 133–149.

  • Roulin A. Ducrest A. L. & Dijkstra C. 1999. Effect of brood size manipulations on parents and offspring in the Barn Owl Tyto alba. – Ardea 87: 91–100.

  • Roulin A. Dijkstra C. Riols C. & Ducrest A. L. 2001. Female- and male-specific signals of quality in the Barn Owl. – Journal of Evolutionary Biology 14(2): 255–266. DOI: 10.1046/j.1420-9101.2001.00274.x

  • Sárossy M. 2000. Ku hniezdeniu a migrácii plamienky driemavej (Tyto alba) na Slovensku [On breeding and movements of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in Slovakia]. – Buteo 11: 25–34. (in Czech with English Summary)

  • Sasvári L. & Hegyi Z. 2011. Age-related territory occupation and fledgling production of males in a Central-European local population of Tawny Owls Strix aluco. – Folia Zoologica 60(3): 221–228. DOI: 10.25225/fozo.v60.i3.a6.2011

  • Šálek M. Poprach K. Opluštil L. Melichar D. Mráz J. & Václav R. 2019. Assessment of relative mortality rates for two rapidly declining farmland owls in the Czech Republic (Central Europe). – European Journal of Wildlife Research 65(1): 19. DOI: 10.1007/s10344-019-1253-y

  • Schönfeld M. & Girbig G. 1975. Beiträge zur Brutbiologie der Schleiereule Tyto alba unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Abhängigkeit von der Feldmausdichte [Contribution to the breeding biology of the Barn Owl Tyto alba with special regard to the dependence on field density]. – Hercynia 12(3): 257–319.

  • Sokal R. R. & Rohlf F. J. 1997. Biometry. – W. H. Freeman and Co. New York

  • Somogyi B. A. & Horváth G. F. 2019. Seasonal activity of Common Vole (Microtus arvalis) in alfalfa fields in southern Hungary. – Biologia 74(1): 91–96. DOI: 10.2478/s11756-018-0149-8

  • Stearns S. C. 1976. Life-history tactics: a review of the ideas. – Quarterly Review of Biology 51: 3–47. DOI: 10.1086/409052

  • Steenhof K. 1987. Assessing raptor reproductive success and productivity. – In: Giron Pendleton B. A. Millsap B. A. Cline K. W. & Bird D. M. (eds.) Raptor management techniques manual. – National Wildlife Federation Washington DC U.S.A. pp. 157–170.

  • Steenhof K. & Newton I. 2007. Assessing nesting success and productivity. – In: Bird D. M. & Bildstein K. L. (eds.) Raptor Research and Management Techniques. – Surrey: Hancock House publishers LTD. pp. 181–162.

  • Stenning M. J. 1996. Hatching asynchrony brood reduction and other rapidly reproducing hypotheses. – Trends in Ecology & Evolution 11: 243–246. DOI: 10.1016/0169-5347(96)10030-6

  • Stoleson S. H. & Beissinger S. R. 1995. Hatching asynchrony and the onset of incubation in birds revisited: when is the critical period? – In: Power D. M. (ed.) Current Ornithology 12. Plenum New York pp. 191–270. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4615-1835-8_6

  • Taylor I. R. 1992. An assessment of the significance of annual variations in snow cover in determining short-term population changes in Field Voles Microtus agrestis and Barn Owls Tyto alba in Britain. – In: Galbraith C. A. Taylor I. R. & Percival S. (eds.) The ecology and conservation of European owls. – UK Nature Conservation No. 5 Joint Nature Conservation Committee Peterborough U.K. pp. 32–38.

  • Taylor I. 1994. Barn Owls. Predator-prey relationships and conservation. – Cambridge University Press Cambridge

  • Tkadlec E. & Stenseth N. C. 2001. A new geographical gradient in vole population dynamics. – Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 268(1476): 1547–1552. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2001.1694

  • Toms M. P. Crick H. Q. & Shawyer C. R. 2001. The status of breeding Barn Owls Tyto alba in the United Kingdom 1995–97. – Bird Study 48(1): 23–37. DOI: 10.1080/00063650109461200

  • Tóth Z. Horváth G. & Müller E. 2005. Investigation of the mortality of a local Barn Owl population using key factor analysis. – Italian Journal of Zoology 72(3): 229–234. DOI: 10.1080/11250000509356676

  • Wendt C. A. & Johnson M. D. 2017. Multi-scale analysis of Barn Owl nest box selection on Napa Valley vineyards. – Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 247: 75–83. DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2017.06.023

  • Wilson R. T. Wilson M. P. & Durkin J. W. 1986. Breeding biology of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in Central Mali. – Ibis 128(1): 81–90. DOI: 10.1111/j.1474-919X.1986.tb02095.x

Search
Journal information
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 149 149 19
PDF Downloads 111 111 19