Extreme weather affects Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus tundrius) breeding success in South Greenland

Open access

Abstract

In order to better understand the potential effects of climate change on the Peregrine Falcon, we investigated the relationship between extreme weather events and Peregrines’ breeding success in South Greenland. We defined three variables – number of days with extremely low temperatures, extreme precipitation, consecutive rainy days – and an additive variable, total days with extreme weather, and tested their relationship with Peregrines’ breeding success (measured as young per site and nest success) over a 33 year study period. Breeding success was negatively influenced by the number of days with extreme weather and extremely low temperature. The strongest relationship found was total days with extreme weather in the entire breeding season, which explained 22% and 27% of the variation in nest success and young per site, respectively. The number of days with extreme weather in our study related to fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Thus, with a strengthening of the NAO, linked to climate change, more extreme weather may occur in the Arctic and induce increased variation in Peregrines’ breeding success. Our data did not allow us to pinpoint when in the breeding cycle inclement weather was particularly harmful, and we recommend finer-scale research (e.g. automated nest cameras) to better monitor the species-specific effects of rapidly changing climate.

Anctil, A., Franke, A. & Bêty, J. 2014. Heavy rainfall increases nestling mortality of an arctic top predator: experimental evidence and long-term trend in Peregrine Falcons. – Oecologia 174(3): 1033–1043. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-013-2800-y

BirdLife International 2016. Falco peregrinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e. T45354964A95143387. – http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T45354964A95143387.en. (Last accessed on 2017-05-10)

Boertmann, D. 2008. Grønlands Rødliste – 2007 [Greenland Red List – 2007]. – Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, Aarhus Universitet og Grønlands Hjemmestyre: 156. (in Danish)

Bradley, M., Johnstone, R., Court, G. & Duncan, T. 1997. Influence of weather on breeding success of Peregrine Falcons in the Arctic. – The Auk 114(4): 786–791. DOI: 10.2307/4089303

Bruggeman, J. E., Swem, T., Andersen, D. E., Kennedy, P. L. & Nigro, D. 2016. Multiseason occupancy models identify biotic and abiotic factors influencing a recovering Arctic Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus tundrius population. – Ibis 158(1): 61–74. DOI: 10.1111/ibi.12313

Cappelen, J. 2016. DMI Report 16-08 Weather observations from Greenland 1958–2015 – Observation data with description. – Report/Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut. – http://www.dmi.dk/fileadmin/user_upload/Rap-porter/TR/2016/DMIRep16-08.pdf (Last accessed on 2017-03-06)

Cleasby, I. R., Bodey, T. W., Vigfusdottir, F., McDonald, J. L., McElwaine, G., Mackie, K., Colhoun, K. & Bear-hop, S. 2017. Climatic conditions produce contrasting influences on demographic traits in a long-distance Arctic migrant. – Journal of Animal Ecology 86(2): 285–295. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12623

Clum, N., Harrity, P. & Weck, H. 1996. Aging young Peregrines. – In: Cade, T. J., Enderson, J. H. & Linthicum, J. (eds.) Guide to Management of Peregrine Falcons at the Eyrie. – The Peregrine Fund, pp. 37–63.

Falk, K. & Møller, S. 2017. Field report 2017: Monitoring of the Peregrine Falcon population in South Greenland. – http://vandrefalk.dk/feltrap/rap2017.pdf (Last accessed on 2018-03-21)

Falk, K. & Møller, S. 1988. Status of the Peregrine Falcon in South Greenland: Population Density and Reproduction. – In: Cade, T. J., Enderson, J. H., Thelander, C. G. & White, C. M. (eds.) Peregrine Falcon populations: Their management and recovery. – Proc. 1985 Peregrine Conf., Sacramento, The Peregrine Fund, Inc., pp. 37–43.

Falk, K., Møller, S. & Burnham, W. A. 1986. The Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus in South Greenland. – Dansk Ornitologisk Forenings Tidsskrift 80: 113–120.

Fisher, R. J., Wellicome, T. I., Bayne, E. M., Poulin, R. G., Todd, L. D. & Ford, A. T. 2015. Extreme precipitation reduces reproductive output of an endangered raptor. – Journal of Applied Ecology 52(6): 1500–1508. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12510

Fletcher, K., Howarth, D., Kirby, A., Dunn, R. & Smith, A. 2013. Effect of climate change on breeding phenology, clutch size and chick survival of an upland bird. – Ibis 155(3): 456–463. DOI: 10.1111/ibi.12055

Franke, A. 2017. Priorities for Gyrfalcon research: food, weather, and phenology in a changing climate. – In: Anderson, D. L., McClure, C. J. W. & Franke, A. (eds.) 2017. Applied raptor ecology: essentials from Gyrfalcon research. – The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, USA, pp. 11–32. DOI: 10.4080/are.2017/001

Haest, B., Hüppop, O. & Bairlein, F. 2017. Challenging a 15-year-old claim: The North Atlantic Oscillation index as a predictor of spring migration phenology of birds. – Global Change Biology 24(4): 1523–1537. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.14023

Lehikoinen, A., Lindén, A., Byholm, P., Ranta, E., Saurola, P., Valkama, J., Kaitala, V. & Lindén, H. 2013. Impact of climate change and prey abundance on nesting success of a top predator, the Goshawk. – Oecologia 171(1): 283–293. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-012-2411-z

McDermott, M. E. & DeGroote, L. W. 2016. Long-term climate impacts on breeding bird phenology in Pennsylvania, USA. – Global Change Biology 22(10): 3304–3319. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13363

McDonald, G, P., Olsen, P. D. & Cockburn, A. 2004. Weather dictates reproductive success and survival in the Australian Brown Falcon Falco berigora. – Journal of Animal Ecology 73(4): 683–692. DOI: 10.1111/j.0021-8790.2004.00842.x

Mearns, R. & Newton, I. 1988. Factors affecting breeding success of Peregrines in south Scotland. – The Journal of Animal Ecology 57(3): 903–916. DOI: 10.2307/5100

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 2018. – https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/teleconnections/nao/ (Last accessed on 2018-02-17)

NOAA/Climate Prediction Center Internet Team 2012. North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). NOAA. – http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/data/teledoc/nao.shtml (Last accessed on 2018-02-16)

Olsen, P. D. & Olsen, J. 1988. Breeding of the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus. I. Weather, nest spacing and territory occupancy. – Emu 88(4): 195–201. DOI: 10.1071/MU9880195

Öberg, M., Arlt, D., Pärt, T., Laugen, A. T., Eggers, S. & Low, M. 2015. Rainfall during parental care reduces reproductive and survival components of fitness in a passerine bird. – Ecology and Evolution 5(2): 345–356. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.134

Park, J-S., Fong, A., Chu, V., Holden, A., Linthicum, J. & Hooper, K. 2011. Prey species as possible sources of PBDE exposures for Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) nesting in major California cities. – Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 60(3): 518–523. DOI: 10.1007/s00244-010-9546-x

Parmesan, C. 2006. Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. – Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 37: 637–669. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.37.091305.110100

Pipoly, I., Bókony, V., Seress, G., Szabó, K. & Liker, A. 2013. Effects of extreme weather on reproductive success in a temperate-breeding songbird. – PloS ONE 8(11): e80033. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080033

Robinson, B. W. & Prostor, M. 2017. Guidelines for conducting a camera study of nesting raptors. – In: Anderson, D. L., McClure, C. J. W. & Franke, A. (eds.) – Applied raptor ecology: essentials from Gyrfalcon research. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, USA, pp. 283–298. DOI: 10.4080/are.2017/app2

Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G-K., Tignor, M., Allen, S. K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V. & Midgley, P. M. 2013. IPCC, 2013: summary for policymakers in climate change 2013. – The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Sullivan, A. R., Flaspohler, D. J., Froese, R. E. & Ford, D. 2015. Climate variability and the timing of spring raptor migration in eastern North America. – Journal of Avian Biology 47: 208–218. DOI: 10.1111/jav.00692

Vorkamp, K., Falk, K., Møller, S., Rigét, F. F., Bossi, R. & Sørensen, P. B. 2017. New and updated time trends of persistent organic pollutants and their effects on eggs of Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) from South Greenland. – Aarhus University, DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy 249, pp. 80. http://dce2.au.dk/pub/SR249.pdf

Wightman, C. S. & Fuller, M. R. 2005. Spacing and physical habitat selection patterns of Peregrine Falcons in central West Greenland. – The Wilson Bulletin 117(3): 226–236. DOI: 10.1676/04-036.1

White, C. M., Clum, N. J., Cade, T. J. & Hunt, W. G. 2002. Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), version 2.0. – In: Poole, A. F. & Gill, F. B. (eds.) The Birds of North America. – Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA, DOI: 10.2173/bna.660

White, C. M., Cade, T. J. & Enderson, J. H. 2013. Peregrine Falcons of the World. – Lynx Edicions

Ornis Hungarica

The Journal of MME/BirdLife Hungary

Journal Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 16 16 16
PDF Downloads 25 25 25