Mobbing in Company: Levels and Typology

Open access

Abstract

Background and purpose: The individual is exposed to ever more covert psychological violence or mobbing in workplace within companies. The aim of this study is to analyse the level and the types of psychological violence within a company in which the individual works in their daily lives.

Design/Methodology/Approach: Using systematic method current mobbing literature reviews were analysed. Based on a review and analysis of the literature, we recognised increasing amounts of workplace bullying. Then we used and extended Dilts’ model and created a model in which we portrayed the different levels and types of bullying in a company. The presented model is a tool for identifying workplace violence within the company.

Results: At the company environment level, there is much bullying associated with social-demographic characteristics and working conditions. At the level of individual behaviour, the type of mobbing exists that is associated with the company’s leadership styles. At the level of professional qualifications, a lack of confidence causes mobbing. At the level of values and beliefs, mobbing is present in attitudes and behavioural intentions. At the level of identity, we can observe mobbing according to sexual identity. At the level of organizational culture, we can recognize a type of mobbing called ‘obsessive dedication’ to working efficiency and organizational silence.

Conclusion: Based on the analysis of selected literature we exposed a range of types and levels of mobbing in company. The expanded Model on levels of mobbing in companies provides a framework for collecting information. The user can identify workplace violence and each strategic organizational level in the work organization

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Akinci Z. & Gueven M. (2015). A study on investigation of the relationship between mobbing and depression according to genders of high school students. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences 174 1597-1605) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.810

  • Arnejčič B. (2014). Psychological violence and ecology of consciousness in the working environment. V: Radivojević Mladen (ed.). Zbornik radova Univerziteta za poslovne studije Banja Luka. Banja Luka: Univerzitet za poslovne studije. 857-864.

  • Arnejčič B. (2013). Socialne veščine otrok in staršev. [Social skills of children and parents]. University of Primorska Faculty of Education.

  • Arnejčič B. & Hoefler K. (2008). Courage to undergo education and enter work: (presentation of open model). In: Comparative education teacher training education policy and social inclusion. Sofia: Bureau for educational services 237-243.

  • Arnejčič. B. (2008). Izbrana poglavja iz psihologije množice vojaške in vojne psihologije. [Selected Chapters from psychology of crowds military and war psychology]. University of Ljubljana: Faculty of Humanities.

  • Birkeland. K. (2014). Fire Walk with Me: Exploring the Role of Harmonious and Obsessive Passion Well-being and Performance at Work. Oslo: Series of Dissertations 8/2014: BI Norwegian Business School. Retrieved from http://web.bi.no/forskning/papers.nsf/wSeriesDissertation/D082E9C8C7D67808C1257CF600321E5

  • Brousse G. Fontana L. Ouchchane L. Boisson C. Gerbaud L Bourguet D Perrier A Schmitt A Llorca P.M. and Chamoux A. (2008). Psychopathological features of a patient population of targets of workplace bullying. Occupational Medicine 58 122–128 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqm148

  • Cacioppo J. T. and William P. (2008). Loneliness. London: Routledge.

  • Česen T. Darmej M. Kečanović B. Modrej A. Prečnik Posel S. Posel F. et al. (2009). Mobbing trpinčenje šikaniranje: nekaj usmeritev za pogum pri ohranjanju dostojanstva. [Mobbing bullying victimization: some guidelines for their courage in maintaining dignity]. Ljubljana: POGUM-društvo za dostojanstvo pri delu.

  • Demasio A. (2008). Looking for Spinoza. Joy Sorrow and the Felling brain. [Iskanje Spinoze: veselje žalost in čuteči možgani]. Ljubljana: Temeljna dela.

  • Dilts R. (1990). Changing belief systems with NLP. Capitola: Meta Publications.

  • Dilts R. Grindler J. Bandler R. & DeLozier J. (1980): Neuro-Linguistic Programming. Volume 1 The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience. Capitola: Meta Pb.

  • Dilts R. (1989). Modelling with NLP. Capitola: Meta Pb.

  • Horvat K. B. & Pagon M. (2012). Attitudes toward Workplace Mobbing in Slovenian Research Organisations: Organizacija 45 (4) 159-173 http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10051-012-0018-0

  • Eurofound (2009a). EWCO ‘Finland: Increase in workplace bullying over past ten years’ 7 December. Retrieved from http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/ewco/2009/10/FI0910019I.htm

  • Picakciefe M. Acar G. Colak Z. & Kilic I. (2015). The Relationship between Socio-demographic Characteristics and Level of “Mobbing” of Health Workers in Primary Health Care. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 1-26 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260515586360

  • Elci M. Erdilek K. Alpkan L. & Sener I. (2014). The Mediating Role of Mobbing on the Relationship between Organisational Silence and Turnover Intention. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences 150 455-464 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.110

  • Ertureten A. Cemalcilar Z. & Aycan Z. (2013). The Relationship of Downward Mobbing with Leadership Style and Organizational Attitudes. Journal of Business Ethics 8 (116) 205-216) http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1468-2

  • Facts. (2016). Nasilje na delovnem mestu. [Violence in the workplace]. Facts 24 Evropska agencija za varnost in zdravje pri delu. Retrieved from . http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/ewco/2009/10/FI0910019I.htm

  • Goodacre R. & Zadro L. 2010. O-Cam: A new paradigm for investigating the effects of ostracism. Behaviour Research Methods 42 768–774 http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BRM.42.3.768

  • Kirn A. (2004). Narava družba ekološka zavest [Nature society ecological awareness]. Ljubljana: University of Ljubljana Faculty of Humanities.

  • Klein M. (2000). Zavist in hvaležnost. [Envy and gratitude]. Ljubljana: Studia Humanitatis.

  • Karakas A. S. Okanli A. (2015). The Effect of Assertiveness Training on the Mobbing that Nurses Experience: Workplace Health & Safety 10 (446-451) http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2165079915591708

  • Lahad M. (1993). Community stress prevention. Kiryat Shomona: Community Stress Prevention Centre.

  • Leymann (1993). Mobbing. Psychoterror am Arbeitsplatz und wie sich dagegen wehren kann Reinbeck Rochwolt:Tachenbuch Verlag GmbH.

  • Leymann H. (1990). Mobbing and psychological terror at workplaces. Violence and Victims (35) (1) 119-126.

  • Leymann H. (2012). Somatic and psychological symptoms after the experience of life threatening events. A profile analysis. Victimology 10 (1 4) 512-538 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15555240.2014.866474

  • Manotas E. M. A. (2015). Mobbing in Organisation: Analysis of Pericular Cases in Higher Educational Institution. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences 191 1607-1612 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.470

  • O’Reilly J. Et al. (2014). Negative Attention Better Than No Attention? The Comparative Effects of Ostracism and Harassment at Work. Organisation Science 4 (774-793) http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.2014.0900

  • Waschgler K. Ruiz-Hernández A. H. & Llor-Esteban B. (2013). Vertical and Lateral Workplace Bullying in Nursing: Development of the Hospital Aggressive Behaviour Scale. Journal of Interpersonal Violence XX(X) 1–24 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260513479027

  • Sunderland M. (2010). The Science of Parenting. [Znanost o vzgoji]. Ljubljana: Didakta.

  • Suddaby R. Viale T. & Gendron Y. (2016). Reflexivity: The role of embedded social position and entrepreneurial social skill in processes of field level change. Research in Organizational Behaviour 88 0-21 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.riob.2016.02.001

  • Qureshi I. M. Iftikhar M. & Janjua J. S. (2015). Empirical investigation of mobbing stress and employees’ behavior at work place: quantitatively refining a qualitative model Quela Quant 49 (93-113) http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11135-013-9976-4

  • Trstenjak A. (1984). Ekološka psihologija. [Ecological psychology]. Ljubljana: ČGP

  • Wang Wenping. (2013). Invisible at Work: An Integrated Model of Workplace Ostracism. Journal of Management 39 203–231 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0149206312466141

  • WBI-USA (2014). Workplace Bullying Survey February 2014. Retrieved from http://www.workplacebullying.org/wbiresearch/wbi-2014-us-survey/

  • Williams D. K. In Nida A. S. (2011). Ostracism: Consequences and Coping. Current Directions in Psychological Science 20 71-75 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0963721411402480

  • Williams Kipling. (2001a). The Pain of Exclusion Scientific American Mind January/February 2 29-35.

  • Williams Kipling. (2011b). Ostracism: The Power of Silence. New York London: The Guilford Press.

  • Zimbardo P. (2007). The Lucifer Effect Understanding How Good People Turn Evil New York: Random House.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 0.87

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.179
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.529

Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 349 243 12
PDF Downloads 270 205 7