Searches for discrete symmetries violation in ortho-positronium decay using the J-PET detector

Open access

Abstract

In this paper, we present prospects for using the Jagiellonian positron emission tomograph (J-PET) detector to search for discrete symmetries violations in a purely leptonic system of the positronium atom. We discuss tests of CP and CPT symmetries by means of ortho-positronium decays into three photons. No zero expectation values for chosen correlations between ortho-positronium spin and momentum vectors of photons would imply the existence of physics phenomena beyond the standard model. Previous measurements resulted in violation amplitude parameters for CP and CPT symmetries consistent with zero, with an uncertainty of about 10−3. The J-PET detector allows to determine those values with better precision, thanks to the unique time and angular resolution combined with a high geometrical acceptance. Achieving the aforementioned is possible because of the application of polymer scintillators instead of crystals as detectors of annihilation quanta.

1. Christenson, J. H., Cronin, J. W., Fitch, V. L., & Turlay, R. (1964). Evidence for the 2π decay of the K20 meson. Phys. Rev. Lett., 13, 138–140. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.13.138.

2. BABAR Collaboration: Aubert, B. et al. (2001). Measurement of CP-violating asymmetries in B0 decays to CP eigenstates. Phys. Rev. Lett., 86, 2515–2522. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.2515.

3. Sakharov, A. D. (1967). Violation of CP invariance, C asymmetry and Baryon asymmetry of the Universe. Pisma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz., 5, 32–35. DOI: 10.1070/PU1991v034n05ABEH002497.

4. Bernreuther, W., Low, U., Ma, J. P., & Nachtmann, O. (1988). How to test CP, T, and CPT invariance in the three photon decay of polarized 3S1 positronium. Z. Phys. C, 41(1), 143–158. DOI: 10.1007/BF01412589.

5. Harpen, M. D. (2004) Positronium: Review of symmetry, conserved quantities and decay for the radiological physicist. Med. Phys., 31(1), 57–61. DOI: 10.1118/1.1630494.

6. Yamazaki, T., Namba, T., Asai, A., & Kobayashi, T. (2010). Search for CP violation in positronium decay. Phys. Rev. Lett., 104, 08340–08344. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.083401.

7. Vetter, P. A., & Freedman, S. J. (2003). Search for CPT-odd decays of positronium. Phys. Rev. Lett., 91, 263401–263405. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRev-Lett.91.263401.

8. Moskal, P., Zoń, N., Bednarski, T., Białas, P., Czerwiński, E., Gajos, A., Kamińska, D., Kapłon, Ł., Kochanowski, A., Korcyl, G., Kowal, J., Kowalski, P., Kozik, T., Krzemień, W., Kubicz, E., Niedźwiecki, Sz., Pałka, M., Raczyński, L., Rudy, Z., Rundel, O., Salabura, P., Sharma, N. G., Silarski, M., Słomski, A., Smyrski, J., Strzelecki, A., Wieczorek, A., Wiślicki, W., & Zieliński, M. (2015). A novel method for the line-of-response and time-of-flight reconstruction in TOF-PET detectors based on a library of synchronized model signals. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A-Accel. Spectrom. Dect. Assoc. Equip., 775, 54–62. DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2014.12.005. [arXiv:1412.6963].

9. Moskal, P., Niedźwiecki, Sz., Bednarski, T., Czerwiński, E., Kapłon, Ł., Kubicz, E., Moskal, I., Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, M., Sharma, N. G., Silarski, M., Zieliński, M., Zoń, N., Białas, P., Gajos, A., Kochanowski, A., Korcyl, G., Kowal, J., Kowalski, P., Kozik, T., Krzemień, W., Molenda, M., Pałka, M., Raczyński, L., Rudy, Z., Salabura, P., Słomski, A., Smyrski, J., Strzelecki, A., Wieczorek, A., & Wiślicki, W. (2014). Test of a single module of the J-PET scanner based on plastic scintillators. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A-Accel. Spectrom. Dect. Assoc. Equip., 764, 317–321. DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2014.07.052. [arXiv:1407.7395].

10. Korcyl, G., Moskal, P., Bednarski, T., Białas, P., Czerwiński, E., Kapłon, Ł., Kochanowski, A., Kowal, J., Kowalski, P., Kozik, T., Krzemień, W., Molenda, M., Niedźwiecki, Sz., Pałka, M., Pawlik, M., Raczyński, L., Rudy, Z., Salabura, P., Gupta-Sharma, N., Silarski, M., Słomski, A., Smyrski, J., Strzelecki, A., Wiślicki, W., Zieliński, M., & Zoń, N. (2014). Trigger-less and reconfigurable data acquisition system for positron emission tomography. Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems, 10(1), 37–40. DOI: 10.1515/bams-2013-0115.

11. Pałka, M., Bednarski, T., Białas, P., Czerwiński, E., Kapłon, Ł., Kochanowski, A., Korcyl, G., Kowal, J., Kowalski, P., Kozik, T., Krzemień, W., Molenda, M., Moskal, P., Niedźwiecki, Sz., Pawlik, M., Raczyński, L., Rudy, Z., Salabura, P., Sharma, N. G., Silarski, M., Słomski, A., Smyrski, J., Strzelecki, A., Wiślicki, W., Zieliński, M., & Zoń, N. (2014). A novel method based solely on FPGA units enabling measurement of time and charge of analog signals in Positron Emission Tomography. Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems, 10(1), 41–45. DOI: 10.1515/bams-2013-0104. [arXiv:1311.6127].

12. Krzemień, W., Gajos, A., Gruntowski, A., Stoła, K., Trybek, D., Bednarski, T., Bialas, P., Czerwiński, E., Kaminska, D., Kapłon, Ł., Kochanowski, A., Korcyl, G., Kowal, J., Kowalski, P., Kozik, T., Kubicz, E., Moskal, P., Niedźwiecki, Sz., Pałka, M., Raczyński, L., Rudy, Z., Salabura, P., Sharma, N. G., Silarski, M., Słomski, A., Smyrski, J., Strzelecki, A., Wieczorek, A., Wiślicki, W., Zieliński, M., & Zon, N. (2015). Analysis framework for the J-PET scanner. Acta Phys. Pol. A, 127(5), 1491–1494. DOI: 10.12693/APhysPolA.127.1491. [arXiv:1503.00465].

13. Raczyński, L., Moskal, P., Kowalski, P., Wiślicki, W., Bednarski, T., Białas, P., Czerwiński, E., Kapłon, Ł., Kochanowski, A., Korcyl, G., Kowal, J., Kozik, T., Krzemień, W., Kubicz, E., Molenda, M., Moskal, I., Niedźwiecki, Sz., Pałka, M., Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, M., Rudy, Z., Salabura, P., Sharma, N. G., Silarski, M., Słomski, A., Smyrski, J., Strzelecki, A., Wieczorek, A., Zieliński, M., & Zoń, N. (2014). Novel method for hit-position reconstruction using voltage signals in plastic scintillators and its application to Positron Emission Tomography. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A-Accel. Spectrom. Dect. Assoc. Equip., 764, 186–192. DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2014.07.032. [arXiv:1311.6127].

14. Raczyński, L., Moskal, P., Kowalski, P., Wiślicki, W., Bednarski, T., Białas, P., Czerwiński, E., Gajos, A., Kapłon, Ł., Kochanowski, A., Korcyl, G., Kowal, J., Kozik, T., Krzemień, W., Kubicz, E., Niedźwiecki, Sz., Pałka, M., Rudy, Z., Rundel, O., Salabura, P., Sharma, N. G., Silarski, M., Słomski, A., Smyrski, J., Strzelecki, A., Wieczorek, A., Zieliński, M., & Zoń, N. (2015). Compressive sensing of signals generated in plastic scintillators in a novel J-PET instrument. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A-Accel. Spectrom. Dect. Assoc. Equip., 786, 105–112. DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2015.03.032. [arXiv:1503.05188].

15. Moskal, P., Sharma, N. G., Silarski, M., Bednarski, T., Białas, P., Bulka, J., Czerwiński, E., Gajos, A., Kamińska, D., Kapłon, Ł., Kochanowski, A., Korcyl, G., Kowal, J., Kowalski, P., Kozik, T., Krzemień, W., Kubicz, E., Niedźwiecki, Sz., Pałka, M., Raczyński, L., Rudy, Z., Rundel, O., Salabura, P., Słomski, A., Smyrski, J., Strzelecki, A., Wieczorek, A., Wiślicki, W., Wochlik, I., Zieliński, M., & Zoń, N. (2015). Hit time and hit position reconstruction in the J-PET detector based on a library of averaged model signals. Acta Phys. Pol. A, 127(5), 1495–1499. DOI: 10.12693/APhysPolA.127.149. [arXiv:1502.07886].

16. Kowalski, P., Moskal, P., Wiślicki, W., Raczyński, L., Bednarski, T., Białas, P., Bułka, J., Czerwiński, E., Gajos, A., Gruntowski, A., Kamińska, D., Kapłon, Ł., Kochanowski, A., Korcyl, G., Kowal, J., Kozik, T., Krzemień, W., Kubicz, E., Niedźwiecki, Sz., Pałka, M., Rudy, Z., Salabura, P., Sharma, N. G., Silarski, M., Słomski, A., Smyrski, J., Strzelecki, A., Wieczorek, A., Wochlik, I., Zieliński, M., & Zoń, N. (2015). Multiple scattering and accidental coincidences in the J-PET detector simulated using GATE package. Acta Phys. Pol. A, 127(5), 1505–1512. DOI: 10.12693/APhysPolA.127.1505. [arXiv:1502.04532].

17. Cal-González, J., Herraiz, J. L., España, S., Corzo, P. M. G., Vaquero, J. J., Desco, M., & Udias, J. M. (2013). Positron range estimations with PeneloPET. Phys. Med. Biol., 58, 5127–5152. DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/58/15/5127.

18. Berestetskii, V. B., Lifshitz, E. M., & Pitaevskii, L. P. (1971). Relativistic quantum theory. Oxford, New York: Pergamon Press.

19. Gajos, A. (2013). A novel algorithm for the K→π0 π0→γγγγ decay vertex reconstruction for the KLOE-2 experiment. Diploma Thesis, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.

20. Gajos, A. (2015). Study of the KSKL→πlν3π0 process for time reversal symmetry test at KLOE-2. Acta Phys. Pol. B, 46, 13–18. DOI: 5506/AphysPolB.46.13.

Nukleonika

The Journal of Instytut Chemii i Techniki Jadrowej

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.720
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.610



CiteScore 2017: 0.64

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.294
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.509

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 127 127 21
PDF Downloads 35 35 3