Andel av befolkningen i Norge med et risikofylt alkoholkonsum målt gjennom Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)

Open access

Abstract

BAKGRUNN – Vi var interessert i andelen av befolkningen i Norge som ifølge Verdens Helseorganisasjon (WHO) sine retningslinjer burde få oppfølging av primærhelsetjenesten i henhold til tre ulike nivåer av risikodrikking. I tillegg undersøkte vi sammenhengen mellom risikofylt drikking og de demografiske variablene kjønn, alder og utdanning. MATERIALE OG METODE – I årene 2012 og 2013 gjennomførte Statistisk Sentralbyrå 4048 telefonintervjuer i et tilfeldig utvalg av befolkningen i alderen 16 til 79 år (svarprosent = 55,3 %). Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), et screeninginstrument for primærhelsetjenesten, ble brukt til å kartlegge potensiell problemdrikking. Vi benyttet beskrivende statistikk og lineær regresjonsanalyse. RESULTATER – Omtrent 17 % av utvalget skåret innenfor grenseverdiene hvor WHO anbefaler enkel rådgivning og/eller videre oppfølging, Av disse var 2 % over grenseverdiene for de to alvorligste risikokategoriene. Det var mest risikofylt drikking blant menn, og spesielt menn i alderen 16 til 50 år. Blant kvinner var det mest risikofylt drikking i aldersgruppen 16 til 30 år. Regresjonsanalysen viste at alder, kjønn og utdanning predikerte AUDIT sumskårer. KONKLUSJON – En stor andel er innen den minst alvorlige risikogruppen, hvor enkle råd om å kutte ned på alkoholen har blitt foreslått som tiltak. Det er en stor overvekt av yngre (16 til 30 år) i denne gruppen, og fra aldersgruppen 20 år og eldre var det en stor overvekt av menn. Dette er individer som ikke nødvendigvis har et alkoholproblem, men som har økt risiko for negative konsekvenser som skader under beruselse, og/eller å utvikle misbruk eller avhengighet over tid.

References

  • Aalto M. Alho H. Halme J. T. & Seppä K. (2009). AUDIT and its abbreviated versions in detecting heavy and binge drinking in a general population survey. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 103(1–2) 25-29. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. drugalcdep.2009.02.013

    • Crossref
  • Aasland O. G. & Johannesen A. (2008). Screening and brief intervention for alcohol problems in Norway. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 25(6) 515–521.

    • Crossref
  • Amundsen E. J. (2010). Hvor mange misbrukere har vi? In E. J. Amundsen (Ed.) Hva er misbruk og avhengighet? Betegnelser begreper og omfang (Vol. 4 pp. 56–69). Oslo: SIRUS.

  • Anderson P. & Baumberg B. (2006). Alcohol in Europe. A public health perspective. London: Institute of Alcohol Studies.

  • Andreasson S. Holder H. D. Norström T. Österberg E. & Rossow I. (2006). Estimates of harm associated with changes in Swedish alcohol policy: results from past and present estimates. Addiction 101(8) 1096–1105. doi: 10.1111/j.1360- 0443.2006.01485.x

    • Crossref
  • Babor T. F. Caetano R. Casswell S. Edwards G. Giesbrecht N. Graham K. … Rossow I. (2010). Alcohol: No ordinary commodity. Research and public policy. Second edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Babor T. F. & Higgins-Biddle J. C. (2001). Brief intervention for hazardous and harmful drinking: a manual for use in primary care. Geneva: World Health Organization.

  • Babor T. F. Higgins-Biddle J. C. Saunders J. B. & Monteiro M. G. (2001). The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test: Guidelines for Use in Primary Care. (2nd ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization.

  • Bergman H. & Källmén H. (2002). Alcohol use among Swedes and a psychometric evaluation of the alcohol use disorders identification test. Alcohol and Alcoholism 37(3) 245-251. doi: 10.1093/ alcalc/37.3.245

    • Crossref
  • Edland-Gryt M. Bryhni A. Skretting A. Lund M. & Bye E. K. (2012). Rusmidler i Norge. Oslo: Statens institutt for rusmiddelforskning.

  • Gomez A. Conde A. Santana J. & Jorrin A. (2005). Diagnostic usefulness of brief versions of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) for detecting hazardous drinkers in primary care settings. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 66(2) 305.

    • Crossref
  • Gottlieb Hansen A. B. Hvidtfeldt U. A. Grønbæk M. Becker U. Søgaard Nielsen A. & Schurmann Tolstrup J. (2011). The number of persons with alcohol problems in the Danish population. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 39(2) 128–136. doi: 10.1177/1403494810393556

    • Crossref
  • Holmila M. (1995). Intoxication and hazardous use of alcohol: results from the 1992 Finnish Drinking Habits Study. Addiction 90(6) 785–792. doi: 10.1046/j.1360-0443.1995.9067855.x

    • Crossref
  • Huhtanen P. Miekkala M. Mustonen H. & Mäkelä P. (2011). Suomalaisten alkoholinkäyttötavat 1968–2008. Juomatapatutkimusten tuloksia. Rapport 26. Helsingfors: Institutet för hälsa och välfärd (THL).

  • Kringlen E. Torgersen S. & Cramer V. (2001). A Norwegian psychiatric epidemiological study. American Journal of Psychiatry 158(7) 1091–1098.

    • Crossref
  • Kringlen E. Torgersen S. & Cramer V. (2006). Mental illness in a rural area. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology 41(9) 713–719.

    • Crossref
  • Källmén H. Wennberg P. Leifman H. Bergman H. & Berman A. H. (2011). Alcohol Habits in Sweden during 1997–2009 with Particular Focus on 2005 and 2009 Assessed with the AUDIT: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Study. European Addiction Research 17(2) 90–96.

    • Crossref
  • Lim S. S. Vos T. Flaxman A. D. Danaei G. Shibuya K. Adair-Rohani H. …Ezzati M. (2012). A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 380(2224–60).

    • Crossref
  • Mathiesen E. Nome S. Richter J. & Eisemann M. (2013). Alcohol use patterns in a Norwegian general population-based sample with special reference to socio-demographic variables. Journal of Public Health 1–9.

    • Crossref
  • Meld.St. 30 (2011-2012). Se meg! En helhetlig rusmiddelpolitkk. Alkohol – narkotika – doping. Oslo: Helse- og omsorgsdepartementet.

  • Norström T. & Pape H. (2012). Associations between adolescent heavy drinking and problem drinking in early adulthood: Implications for prevention. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 73 542– 548.

    • Crossref
  • Reinert D. F. & Allen J. P. (2007). The alcohol use disorders identification test: an update of research findings. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 31(2) 185– 199.

    • Crossref
  • Saunders J. B. Aasland O. G. Babor T. F. De La Fuente J. R. & Grant M. (1993). Development of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): WHO Collaborative Project on Early Detection of Persons with Harmful Alcohol Consumption-II. Addiction 88(6) 791–804. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.1993.tb02093.x

    • Crossref
  • Skog O.-J. (1985). The Collectivity of Drinking Cultures: A Theory of the Distribution of Alcohol Consumption. British Journal of Addiction 80(1) 83–99. doi: 10.1111/ j.1360-0443.1985.tb05294.x

    • Crossref
  • Storvoll E. E. Rossow I. Moan I. S. Norström T. Scheffels J. & Lauritzen G. (2010). Skader og problemer forbundet med bruk av alkohol narkotika og tobakk. Oslo: Statens institutt for rusmiddelforskning (SIRUS)

  • Taylor B. Irving H. M. Kanteres F. Room R. Borges G. Cherpitel C. … Rehm J. (2010). The more you drink the harder you fall: A systematic review and meta-analysis of how acute alcohol consumption and injury or collision risk increase together. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 110(1–2) 108-116. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. drugalcdep.2010.02.011

    • Crossref
  • Torvik F. Rognmo K. & Tambs K. (2012). Alcohol use and mental distress as predictors of non-response in a general population health survey: the HUNT study. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology 47(5) 805–816. doi: 10.1007/ s00127-011-0387-3

    • Crossref
  • Østhus S. Bye E. K. & Storvoll E. E. (2011). Alkoholkonsum. In A. Skretting & E. Storvoll (Eds.) Utviklingstrekk på Rusmiddelfeltet (pp. 82–95). Oslo: SIRUS.

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  • Aalto M. Alho H. Halme J. T. & Seppä K. (2009). AUDIT and its abbreviated versions in detecting heavy and binge drinking in a general population survey. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 103(1–2) 25-29. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. drugalcdep.2009.02.013

    • Crossref
  • Aasland O. G. & Johannesen A. (2008). Screening and brief intervention for alcohol problems in Norway. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 25(6) 515–521.

    • Crossref
  • Amundsen E. J. (2010). Hvor mange misbrukere har vi? In E. J. Amundsen (Ed.) Hva er misbruk og avhengighet? Betegnelser begreper og omfang (Vol. 4 pp. 56–69). Oslo: SIRUS.

  • Anderson P. & Baumberg B. (2006). Alcohol in Europe. A public health perspective. London: Institute of Alcohol Studies.

  • Andreasson S. Holder H. D. Norström T. Österberg E. & Rossow I. (2006). Estimates of harm associated with changes in Swedish alcohol policy: results from past and present estimates. Addiction 101(8) 1096–1105. doi: 10.1111/j.1360- 0443.2006.01485.x

    • Crossref
  • Babor T. F. Caetano R. Casswell S. Edwards G. Giesbrecht N. Graham K. … Rossow I. (2010). Alcohol: No ordinary commodity. Research and public policy. Second edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Babor T. F. & Higgins-Biddle J. C. (2001). Brief intervention for hazardous and harmful drinking: a manual for use in primary care. Geneva: World Health Organization.

  • Babor T. F. Higgins-Biddle J. C. Saunders J. B. & Monteiro M. G. (2001). The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test: Guidelines for Use in Primary Care. (2nd ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization.

  • Bergman H. & Källmén H. (2002). Alcohol use among Swedes and a psychometric evaluation of the alcohol use disorders identification test. Alcohol and Alcoholism 37(3) 245-251. doi: 10.1093/ alcalc/37.3.245

    • Crossref
  • Edland-Gryt M. Bryhni A. Skretting A. Lund M. & Bye E. K. (2012). Rusmidler i Norge. Oslo: Statens institutt for rusmiddelforskning.

  • Gomez A. Conde A. Santana J. & Jorrin A. (2005). Diagnostic usefulness of brief versions of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) for detecting hazardous drinkers in primary care settings. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 66(2) 305.

    • Crossref
  • Gottlieb Hansen A. B. Hvidtfeldt U. A. Grønbæk M. Becker U. Søgaard Nielsen A. & Schurmann Tolstrup J. (2011). The number of persons with alcohol problems in the Danish population. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 39(2) 128–136. doi: 10.1177/1403494810393556

    • Crossref
  • Holmila M. (1995). Intoxication and hazardous use of alcohol: results from the 1992 Finnish Drinking Habits Study. Addiction 90(6) 785–792. doi: 10.1046/j.1360-0443.1995.9067855.x

    • Crossref
  • Huhtanen P. Miekkala M. Mustonen H. & Mäkelä P. (2011). Suomalaisten alkoholinkäyttötavat 1968–2008. Juomatapatutkimusten tuloksia. Rapport 26. Helsingfors: Institutet för hälsa och välfärd (THL).

  • Kringlen E. Torgersen S. & Cramer V. (2001). A Norwegian psychiatric epidemiological study. American Journal of Psychiatry 158(7) 1091–1098.

    • Crossref
  • Kringlen E. Torgersen S. & Cramer V. (2006). Mental illness in a rural area. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology 41(9) 713–719.

    • Crossref
  • Källmén H. Wennberg P. Leifman H. Bergman H. & Berman A. H. (2011). Alcohol Habits in Sweden during 1997–2009 with Particular Focus on 2005 and 2009 Assessed with the AUDIT: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Study. European Addiction Research 17(2) 90–96.

    • Crossref
  • Lim S. S. Vos T. Flaxman A. D. Danaei G. Shibuya K. Adair-Rohani H. …Ezzati M. (2012). A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 380(2224–60).

    • Crossref
  • Mathiesen E. Nome S. Richter J. & Eisemann M. (2013). Alcohol use patterns in a Norwegian general population-based sample with special reference to socio-demographic variables. Journal of Public Health 1–9.

    • Crossref
  • Meld.St. 30 (2011-2012). Se meg! En helhetlig rusmiddelpolitkk. Alkohol – narkotika – doping. Oslo: Helse- og omsorgsdepartementet.

  • Norström T. & Pape H. (2012). Associations between adolescent heavy drinking and problem drinking in early adulthood: Implications for prevention. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 73 542– 548.

    • Crossref
  • Reinert D. F. & Allen J. P. (2007). The alcohol use disorders identification test: an update of research findings. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 31(2) 185– 199.

    • Crossref
  • Saunders J. B. Aasland O. G. Babor T. F. De La Fuente J. R. & Grant M. (1993). Development of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): WHO Collaborative Project on Early Detection of Persons with Harmful Alcohol Consumption-II. Addiction 88(6) 791–804. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.1993.tb02093.x

    • Crossref
  • Skog O.-J. (1985). The Collectivity of Drinking Cultures: A Theory of the Distribution of Alcohol Consumption. British Journal of Addiction 80(1) 83–99. doi: 10.1111/ j.1360-0443.1985.tb05294.x

    • Crossref
  • Storvoll E. E. Rossow I. Moan I. S. Norström T. Scheffels J. & Lauritzen G. (2010). Skader og problemer forbundet med bruk av alkohol narkotika og tobakk. Oslo: Statens institutt for rusmiddelforskning (SIRUS)

  • Taylor B. Irving H. M. Kanteres F. Room R. Borges G. Cherpitel C. … Rehm J. (2010). The more you drink the harder you fall: A systematic review and meta-analysis of how acute alcohol consumption and injury or collision risk increase together. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 110(1–2) 108-116. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. drugalcdep.2010.02.011

    • Crossref
  • Torvik F. Rognmo K. & Tambs K. (2012). Alcohol use and mental distress as predictors of non-response in a general population health survey: the HUNT study. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology 47(5) 805–816. doi: 10.1007/ s00127-011-0387-3

    • Crossref
  • Østhus S. Bye E. K. & Storvoll E. E. (2011). Alkoholkonsum. In A. Skretting & E. Storvoll (Eds.) Utviklingstrekk på Rusmiddelfeltet (pp. 82–95). Oslo: SIRUS.

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