Islam and Muslims as Elephants in the Interfaith Room:

Frame governance of dialogue and de-radicalisation

Louise Lund Liebmann 1
  • 1 Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark

Abstract

Bringing together theories of media and policy frames of Norwegian Muslims as governance instruments, this article performs a microanalysis of the Norwegian 2015 de-radicalisation seminar Together against Radicalisation and Extremism as an instance of governance of religious diversity. The seminar was organised by an interfaith forum based in the conservatively Christian ‘Bible Belt’ of southern Norway and directed at local high school students who attended the seminar as part of their compulsory curricula. Analysing how Islam came to constitute a focal point to which the public presenters frequently related, this study explores how media and policy frames impact cultural encounters at the civic society level and points to how the seminar’s subtle workings reproduce significant religious, ethnic and cultural demarcations that stand in opposition to the seminar’s minority-inclusive objectives.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Abdel-Fadil, M 2005, ‘Truede identiteter: Identitetsarbeid blant unge muslimer i Norge’, in Somaliere i Norge: Perspektiver på spåk, religion og integrering, eds. K Nes, T Skoug & M Strømstad, Oplandske Bokforlag, Vallset, pp. 91-111.

  • Abdel-Fadil, M & Liebmann, LL 2018, ‘Gender, diversity and mediatized conflicts of religion: lessons from Scandinavian Case Studies’, in Contesting Religion: The Media Dynamics of Cultural Conflicts in Scandinavia, ed. K Lundby, De Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 281-298, DOI:0.1515/9783110502060-021.

  • Alghamdi, EA 2015, ‘The representation of Islam in Western Media: the coverage of Norway terrorist attacks’, International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 198-204. DOI:10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.4n.3p.198.

  • Amir-Moazami, S 2011, ‘Dialogue as a governmental technique: managing gendered Islam in Germany’, Feminist Review, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 9-27. DOI:10.1057/fr.2011.8.

  • Bangstad, S 2011, ‘The morality police are coming! Muslims in Norway’s media discourses’, Anthropology Today, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 3-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-8322.2011.00825.x.

  • Bangstad, S 2016, ‘Islamophobia: What’s in a Name? Analysing the discourses of stopp Islamiseringen Av Norge (Stop the Islamisation of Norway, SIAN)’, Journal of Muslims in Europe, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 145-169. DOI:10.1163/22117954-12341324.

  • Bangstad, S & Elgvin, O 2016, ‘Norway’ - in Yearbook of Muslims in Europe Vol. 8 (Final Draft Version), eds. O Scharbrodt, S Akgönül, A Alibašić, J Nielsen & E Racius, Brill, Leiden, pp. 1-24.

  • Bilici, M 2010, ‘Muslim Ethnic Comedy: Inversions of Islamophobia’, in Islamophobia/Islamophilia: Beyond the Politics of Enemy and Friend, ed. A Shryock, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, pp. 195-208.

  • Biljefeld, WA 1996, ‘Christian-Muslim relations: a burdensome past, a challenging future’, Word & World, vol. XVI, no. 2, pp. 117-128.

  • Brottveit, Å, Gresaker, AK & Hoel, N 2015, “Det handler om verdensfreden”: En evaluering av rollen Samarbeidsrådet for tros-og livssynssamfunn, Norges Kristne Råd og Islamisk Råd Norge har i dialogarbeidet, KIFO, Available from: <http://www.kifo.no/det-handler-omverdensfreden/>. [Last accessed 27.09.2018].

  • Brown, W 2008, Regulating aversion: tolerance in the age of identity and empire, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

  • Cesari, J 2013, Why the west fears Islam: an exploration of Muslims in liberal democracies, Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

  • Dornhof, S 2012, ‘Rationalities of dialogue’, Current Sociology, vol. 60, no. 3, pp 382-398. DOI:10.1177/0011392111426190.

  • Døving, CA 2012, ‘The Hijab debate in the Norwegian press: secular or religious arguments?’, Journal of Religion in Europe, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 223-243. DOI:10.1163/187489212X639208.

  • Entman, RM 1993, ‘Framing: toward clarification of a fractured paradigm’, Journal of Communication, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 51-58. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1993.tb01304.x.

  • Es, MA 2017, Stereotypes and self-representations of women with a Muslim background: the stigma of being oppressed, Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

  • Eskjær, MF, Hjarvard, S & Mortensen, M 2015, ‘Introduction: three dynamics of mediatized conflicts’ in The Dynamics of mediatized conflicts, eds. MF Eskjær, S Hjarvard & M Mortensen, Peter Lang, New York. pp. 1-27.

  • Fangen, K & Kolås, Å 2016, ‘The “Syria Traveller”: reintegration or legal sanctioning?’ Critical Studies on Terrorism, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 414-432. DOI:10.1080/17539153.2016.119 2260.

  • Goffman, E 1974, Frame analysis: an essay on the organization of experience, Harper Colophon Books, New York.

  • Hayes, B & Kundnani, A 2018, ‘The globalisation of countering violent extremism policies: undermining human rights, Instrumentalising Civil Society’, The Transnational Institute (TNI), Available from: <https://www.tni.org/en/publication/the-globalisationof-countering-violent-extremism-policies>. [Last accessed 27.09.2018].

  • Haynes, J 2013, ‘Introduction’, in Religious actors in the public sphere: means, objectives, and effects, eds. J Haynes & A Henning, Routledge, Abingdon, pp. 113-131. DOI:10.4324/9780203807354.

  • Hepp, A, Hjarvard, S & Lundby, K 2015, ‘Mediatization: theorizing the interplay between media, culture and society’, Media, Culture & Society, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 314-324. DOI:10.1177/0163443715573835.

  • Herbert, D 2018, ‘Perspectives: theorizing mediatized civic settings and cultural conflict’, in Contesting religion: the media dynamics of cultural conflicts in Scandinavia, ed. K Lundby, De Gruyter. Berlin, pp. 155-170. DOI:10.1515/9783110502060-014.

  • Hjarvard, S & Lövheim, M (eds.) 2012, Mediatization and religion. Nordic perspectives, Nordicom, Gothenburg.

  • Kinnvall, C & Nesbitt-Larking, P 2011, ‘Global insecurity and citizenship strategies: young Muslims in the west’, Distinktion: Journal of Social Theory, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 271-290. DO I:10.1080/1600910X.2011.619344.

  • Kulturdepartementet 2014, Utlysning: Tilskudd Til Dialog Og Forebyggning Av Radikalisering. Available from: <https://www.regjeringen.no/no/aktuelt/Utlysning-Tilskudd-til-dialog-og-forebygging-av-radikalisering/id2005272/?id=2005272>. [Last accessed 26.09.2018].

  • Kundnani, A 2014, The Muslims are coming! islamophobia, extremism, and the domestic war on terror, Verso, New York.

  • Lakoff, G 2014, The all new don’t think of an elephant!: know your values and frame the debate, Chelsea Green Publishing, White River Junction.

  • Lid, S, Winswold, M, Søholt, S, Hansen, SJ, Heierstad, G & Klausen, JE 2016, Forebyggning Av Radikalisering Og Voldelig Ekstremisme: Hva Er Kommunenes Rolle? By- og regionforskningsinstituttet NIBR, Available from: <http://www.hioa.no/Om-OsloMet/Senter-for-velferds-og-arbeidslivsforskning/NIBR/Publikasjoner/Forebygging-avradikalisering-og-voldelig-ekstremisme2>. [Last accessed 27.09.2018].

  • Liebmann, LL 2017, ‘Interfaith dialogue in Christian Norway: enactment of inclusive religiosity as civilized behavior’, Journal of Religion in Europe, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 301-327. DOI:10.1163/18748929-01003003.

  • Liebmann, LL 2018, ‘Media, Muslims and minority tactics: compelling dialogues in Norway’, in Contesting religion: the media dynamics of cultural conflicts in Scandinavia, ed. K Lundby, De Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 187-204. DOI:10.1515/9783110502060-016.

  • Lövheim, M, Jernsletten, HH, Herbert, D, Lundby, K & Hjarvard, S 2018, ‘Attitudes: tendencies and variations’, in Contesting relig ion: the media dynamics of cultural conflicts in Scandinavia, ed. K Lundby, De Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 33-50. DOI:10.1515/9783110502060-007.

  • Lundby, K 2017, ‘Mediebruk og Konflikter: Om Religion i Norge’. Norsk Medietidsskrift, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1-19.

  • Lundby, K (ed.) 2018, Contesting religion: the media dynamics of cultural conflicts in Scandinavia, De Gruyter, Berlin.

  • Malik, J 2013, ‘Integration of Muslim migrants and the politics of dialogue: the case of modern Germany’, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 495-506. DOI:10.1080/13602004.2013.866350.

  • Mårtensson, U 2014, ‘Hate speech and dialogue in Norway: Muslims “speak back”‘, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 230-248. DOI:10.1080/136918 3X.2013.851473.

  • Maussen, M & Bader, V 2011, ‘Introduction’, in Colonial and post-colonial governance of Islam: continuities and ruptures, eds. M Maussen, V Bader & A Moors, Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam, pp. 9-26.

  • Meyen, M, Thieroff, M & Strenger, S 2014, ‘Mass media logic and the mediatization of politics’, Journalism Studies, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 271-288. DOI:10.1080/1461670X.2014.889459.

  • Michelsen, JR 2016, ‘Islam dominerer religionsdebatten’, Vårt Land. 16.08.2016. Available at: <http://www.vl.no/nyhet/islam-dominererreligionsdebatten-1.766627?paywall=true>. [Last accessed 15.05.2017].

  • Morey, P & Yaqin, A 2011, Framing Muslims, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

  • Neufeldt, RC 2011, ‘Interfaith dialogue: assessing theories of change: interfaith dialogue’, Peace & Change, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 344-372. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-0130.2011.00702.x.

  • Norwegian Ministry of Justice and Public Security (NMJPS). 2014, ‘Action Plan against Radicalisation and Violent Extremism’, Available from: <https://www.regjeringen.no/en/dokumenter/Action-plan-against-Radicalisation-and-Violent-Extremism/id762413/>. [Last accessed 27.09.2018].

  • Repstad, P 2009, ‘A softer god and a more positive anthropology: changes in a religiously strict region in Norway’, Religion, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 126-131.

  • Sedgwick, M 2010, ‘The concept of radicalization as a source of confusion’, Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 479-494. DOI:10.1080/09546553.2010.491009.

  • Trooglivssyn.no. 2017, § 1vedtekter. Available from: <https://www.trooglivssyn.no/index.cfm?id=150175>. [Last accessed 15.05.2017]

  • Vestel, V 2016, I gråsonen: ungdom og politisk ekstremisme i den nye Norge, Universitetsforlaget, Oslo.

  • Winswold, M, Mjelde, HL & Loga, J 2017, Trossamfunn som arena for forebyggning av radikalisering og voldelig ekstremisme, Senter for forskning på sivilsamfunn og frivillig sektor, Available from: <https://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/handle/11250/2442828>. [Last accessed 27.09.2018].

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search