This article examines the right to free movement in the European Union (EU) and discusses the moral questions related to refugees in light of the current migration context. More specifically, in this article, I discuss the right to free movement in terms of its development into an EU citizenship right and assess the grounds for its validity. I argue that free movement was developed in a manner that puts too much emphasis on external threats coming from outside the EU borders. I also claim that the right to free movement is an exclusive concept that adds to the alienation between EU-citizens and the rest, which is also visible in the ongoing so-called migration crisis.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Atger AF 2008’ The Abolition of Internal Border Checks in an Enlarged Schengen Area: Freedom of movement or a web of scattered security checks?’ CEPS Challenge Paper 8.
Attinà F 2015 ‘Immigrazione: Il Merito Di Angela Merkel’ Affari Internazionali 1 September.
Bauböck R 2015a ‘From Moral Intuition to Political Change: On Joseph Carens’s Theory of Social Membership and Open Borders. Review Symposium on Joseph Carens: The Ethics of Immigration’ Political Theory vol. 43 no. 3 pp. 394-401 DOI: 10.1177/0090591715580072.
Bauböck R 2015b ‘Morphing the Demos into the Right Shape. Normative Principles for Enfranchising Resident Aliens and Expatriate Citizens’ Democratization vol. 22 no. 5 pp. 820-839 DOI: 10.1080/13510347.2014.988146.
Bauböck R 2014 ‘The Three Levels of Citizenship within the European Union’ German Law Journal vol. 15 no. 5 pp. 751-763.
Bauböck R 2009 ‘Global Justice Freedom of Movement and Democratic Citizenship’ Archives Européennes De Sociologie vol. 50 no. 1 pp. 1-31 DOI: 10.1017/S000397560900040X.
BBC 2016 ‘Migrant crisis: EU-Turkey deal comes into effect’ 20 March 2016.
Carens JH 2013 The ethics of immigration Oxford University Press Oxford.
Carrera S & Guild E 2015 ‘Can the new refugee location system work? Perils in the Dublin logic and flawed reception conditions in the EU’ CEPS Policy Brief no. 332 October 2015.
Castañeda H 2010 ‘Deportation Deferred: “Illegality” Visibility and Recognition in Contemporary Germany’ in The deportation regime: sovereignty space and the freedom of movement eds. N De Genova N Peutz Duke University Press Durham pp. 245-261.
Collier P 2015 ‘Beyond the Boat People: Europe’s Moral Duties to Refugees’ Social Europe 15 July.
Domnar A O 2009 ‘When the East Goes West : Romanian Migrants in Italy or How to Deal with Mobility Issues in the EU 27’ Romanian Journal of Political Science vol. 9 no. 1: 29-46.
Dworkin R 2000 Sovereign Virtue: The Theory and Practice of Equality Harvard University Press Cambridge & London.
European Commission 2015 ‘Refugee Crisis - Q&A on Emergency Relocation Brussels 22 September 2015.
European Commission 2016a ‘Back to Schengen: Commission proposes Roadmap for restoring fully functioning Schengen system’ Brussels 4.3.2016.
European Commission 2016b ‘Letter from President Juncker to the President and the Members of the European Council on progress in the implementation of the Facility for Refugees in Turkey’ Brussels 17.10.2016.
Favell A 2008 Eurostars and Eurocities: Free Movement and Mobility in an Integrating Europe Malden Blackwell.
Finotelli C& Arango J2011 ‘Regularisation of Unauthorised Immigrants in Italy and Spain: Determinants and Effects’ Documents d’Anàlisi Geogràfica vol. 57 no. 13 pp. 495-515.
Hume D 1896 A Treatise of Human Nature ed with an analytical index LA Selby-Bigge Clarendon Oxford.
Huysmans J 2000 ‘The European Union and the Securitization of Migration’ Journal of Common Market Studies vol. 38 no. 5 pp. 751-777.
Huysmans J 2006 The Politics of Insecurity: Fear Migration and Asylum in the EU Routledge London.
Kingsley P 2016 ‘UN backlash against call to scale back Geneva convention on refugees’ The Guardian 6.1.2016.
Maas W 2007 Creating European Citizens Roman & Littlefield Lanham.
Miller D 2012 Justice for Earthlings: Essays in Political Philosophy Cambridge University Press Cambridge.
Miller D 2007 National Responsibility and Global Justice Oxford University Press Oxford.
Minderhoud P 2013 ‘Directive 2004/38 and Access to Social Assistance Benefits’ in The Reconceptualization of European Union Citizenship ed E Guild T Kostakopoulou & C Gortázar Brill NV Leiden pp. 209-226.
Mitsilegas V Monar J & Rees W 2003 The European Union and Internal Security; Guardian of the People? Palgrave Macmillan Basingstoke.
Mogherini F 2015 ‘Remarks by High Representative/ Vice- President Federica Mogherini at the press conference following the Foreign Affairs Council’ Brussels 16.11.2015.
O’Keeffe D 1998 ‘Freedom of Movement for Workers in Community Law: Accomplishments and Prospects’ in Thirty Years of Free Movement of Workers in Europe ed European Commission pp. 20-32.
Parker O & Catalán ÓL 2014 ‘Free Movement for Whom Where When? Roma EU Citizens in France and Spain’ International Political Sociology vol. 8 no. 4 pp. 379-395. DOI: 10.1111/ips.12069.
Rawls J 1973 A Theory of Justice Oxford University Press London.
Recchi E 2013 Senza Frontiere. La Libera Circolazione Delle Persone in Europa Mulino Bologna.
Sassen S 1999 Guests and Aliens New York New Press.
Sidorenko OF 2007 The Common European Asylum System: Background Current State of Affairs Future Direction Cambridge University Press The Hague & Cambridge.
Shaw J 2007 The Transformation of Citizenship in the European Union Electoral Rights and the Restructuring of Political Space Cambridge University Press Cambridge.
Strumia F 2013 Supranational Citizenship and the Challenge of Diversity: Immigrants Citizens and Member States in the EU Brill Leiden.
Talani LS 2012 ‘The Internal and External Dimension of the ‘Fortress Europe’ in Globalisation Migration and the Future of Europe: Insiders and Outsiders edLS Talani Routledge London pp. 61-80.
Thieleman ER & Dewan T2007 ‘The Myth of Free-Riding: Refugee Protection and Implicit Burden-Sharing in Immigration Policy in Europe: The Politics of Control edV Guiraudon & G Lahav Routledge New York pp. 151-169.
Tonkiss K 2013 Migration and identity in a post-national world Palgrave Macmillan London.
Ugur M 1995 ‘Freedom of Movement Vs. Exclusion: A Reinterpretation of the `Insider’- `Outsider’ Divide in the European Union’ International Migration Review vol. 29 no. 4 pp. 964-999 DOI:10.2307/2547734.
UNICEF 2015 Education Under Fire - how Conflict in the Middle East is Depriving Children of their Schooling.
Vogt H 2009 ‘The Borders of European Tolerance’ in Europa Jenseits Seiner Grenzen: Historische Politologische Und Rechtliche Zugriffe ed I Pernice B von Egelhardt S H. Krieg I Ley & O Salidas Nomos Baden-Baden pp. 211-25.
Walzer M 1983 Spheres of Justice: A Defence of Pluralism and Equality Martin Robertson Oxford.
Walzer M 1986 ‘Justice here and Now’ in Justice and Equality here and Now ed FS Lucash C Taylor & M Walzer Cornell University Press Ithaca pp. 136-150.
Walzer M 1997 On Toleration Yale U.P New Haven.
Walzer M 2001 ‘In Response: Support for Modesty and the Nation- State’ The Responsive Community vol. 11 no. 1 pp. 28-31.
Weiler JHH 2012 ‘Deciphering the Political and Legal DNA of European Integration’ in Philosophical Foundations of European Union Law ed J Dickson & P Eleftheriadis Oxford University Press Oxford pp. 137-164.