This article explores the relationship between migration and empowerment, and demonstrates the benefits of addressing the conditions migrants leave behind, to understand migration flows. Among Ukrainian migrants, a significant share is women aged 40-70 who leave family behind in Ukraine to care for the elderly in Italy. The article describes several factors that have shaped the high level of mobility for this generation women in Ukraine, and identifies as a key mechanism the religious and economic limitations on divorce.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Ashwin S 2000 Gender state and society in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia Routledge London New York.
Ashwin S & Lytkina T 2004 ‘Men in crisis in Russia: The role of domestic marginalization’ Gender & Society vol. 18 no. 2 pp. 189-206.
Bonifacio G 2012 ‘Introduction’ in feminism and migration vol. 1 ed. GT Bonifacio Springer Netherlands pp. 1-14.
Bourdieu P 1977 Outline of a theory of practice Cambridge University Press Cambridge New York.
Brainerd E 2001 ‘Economic reform and mortality in the former Soviet Union: A study of the suicide epidemic in the 1990s’ European economic review vol. 45 no. 4-6 pp. 1007-1019.
Castles S 2010 ‘Understanding global migration: A social transformation perspective’ Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies vol. 36 no. 10 pp. 1565-1586.
Constable N 2003 ‘A transnational perspective on divorce and marriage: Filipina wives and workers’ Identities vol. 10 no. 2 pp. 163-180.
Constable N (ed.) 2005 Cross-border marriages University of Pennsylvania Press Philadelphia.
de Haas H 2010 ‘The internal dynamics of migration processes: a theoretical Inquiry’ Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies vol. 36 no. 10 pp. 1587-1617.
DeVault ML 1991 Feeding the family: the social organization of caring as gendered work University of Chicago Press Chicago.
Ehrenreich B & Hochschild AR 2002 Global woman: nannies maids and sex workers in the new economy 1st edn Metropolitan Books New York.
Evergeti V & Ryan L 2011 ‘Negotiating transnational caring practises among migrant families’ in Gender generations and the family in international migration eds A Kraler et al. Amsterdam University Press Amsterdam pp. 355-368.
Fedyuk O 2011 Beyond motherhood: Ukrainian female labor migration to Italy thesis Central European Universtity.
Fisher P Martin R & Straubhaar T 1997 ‘Should I stay or should I go?’ in International migration immobility and development eds T Hammar et al. Berg Oxford.
Gilardoni G 2010 ‘Cross-cutting social circle configurations in the lives of the sons and daughters of mixed parentage’ Italian Journal of Sociology of Education vol. 4 no. 1 pp. 154-191.
King R 2002 ‘Towards a new map of European Migration’ Population Space and Place vol. 8 no. 2 pp. 89-106.
Kofman E Kraler A Kohli M & Schmoll C 2012 ‘Introduction. Issues and debates on family-related migration and the migrant family: A European persepctive’ in Gender generations and the family in international migration eds A Kraler et al. Amsterdam University Press Amsterdam pp. 13-54.
Kofman E 2000 Gender and international migration in Europe: employment welfare and politics Routledge New York.
KyivPost 2011 ‘Fewer divorces registered in Ukraine in 2010’ KyivPost 02/03.
Lan P-C 2003 ‘Maid Or madam? Filipina migrant workers and the continuity of domestic labor’ Gender & Society vol. 17 no. 2 pp. 187-208.
Landale NS & Ogena NB 1995 ‘Migration and union dissolution among puerto rican women’ International Migration Review vol. 29 no. 3 pp. 671-692.
Massey DS Arango J Hugo G Kouaouci A Pellegrino A & Taylor JE 2008 Worlds in motion: understanding international migration at the end of the millennium Clarendon Press New York.
Montefusco C 2008 ‘Ukrainian migration to Italy’ Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies vol. 6 no. 3 pp. 344-355.
Nadim M 2014 ‘Transnational marriages and second-generation women’s employment’ in Nordic Journal of Migration Research vol. 4 no.3 pp. 99-107.
Oishi N 2005 Women in motion. globalization state policies and labour migration in Asia Stanford University Press Califorinia.
Parreñas RS 2001 ‘Mothering from a distance: emotions gender and intergenerational relations in Filipino transnational families’ Feminist Studies vol. 27 no. 2 pp. 361-390.
Parreñas RS 2008 The force of domesticity NYU Press New York.
Piperno F 2006 Welfare for whom? The impact of care drain in Romania and Ukraine and the rise of transnational welfare CesPI (published online): http://www.cespi.it/PDF/pipernowelfare.pdf.
Razumkov Centre 2011 Faith and Religion in Ukraine: Public Opinion. National Security and Defence No 1-2
Sarti R & Scrinzi F 2010 ‘Introduction to the special issue: men in a woman’s job male domestic workers international migration and the globalization of care’ Men and Masculinities vol. 13 no. 1 pp. 4-15.
Sassen S 1988 The mobility of labor and capital: a study in international investment and labor flow Cambridge University Press Cambridge England; New York.
Schmidt G 2011 ‘The powerful map of transnational families’ Nordic Journal of Migration Research vol. 1 no. 2 pp. 80-87.
Sciortino G 2004 ‘Immigration in a mediterranean welfare state: the Italian experience in comparative perspective’ Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis vol. 6 no. 2 pp. 111-129.
Solari C 2010 ‘Resource drain vs constitutive circularity: comparing the gendered effects of post-soviet migration patterns in Ukraine’ Anthropology of East Europe Review vol. 28 no. 1 pp. 215-238.
Swidler A 2001 Talk of love: how culture matters University of Chicago Press Chicago.
Timmerman C & Wets J 2011 ‘Marriage Migration and the Labour Market’ Nordic Journal of Migration Research vol. 1 no. 2 pp. 69-79.
Tyldum G 2015 ‘Motherhood agency and sacrifice in narratives on female migration for Care Work’ Sociology.
Tyldum G. 2013. Dependence and human trafficking in the context of transnational marriage. International Migration 51 103-115.
Tyldum G. Under review. Migration and its social meanings.
UCRS 2009 External labour migration of Ukraine’s Population Ukrainian Center for Social Reforms/State Committee of Statistics of Ukraine Kiev.
Vianello FA 2011 ‘Suspended migrants. Return migration to Ukraine’ in (Post)trans-formational Migration. Inequalities Welfare State and Horizontal Mobility eds M Nowak & M Nowosielski Peter Lang Frankfurt am Main pp. 251-271.
Zlotnik H 1995 ‘Migration and the family: the female perspective.’ Asian and Pacific Migration Journal vol. 4 no. 2-3 pp. 253-271.
White A 2011 Polish families and migration since EU accession The Policy Press Bristol.