“Samira Doesn’t Live Here Any More”:

Somali-Swedes’ mobility as transnational practice

Open access

Abstract

This article explores transnational experiences within a group of Somali- Swedes, particularly how parents’ transnational practices are transferred to their children and how a transnational social space, built on close relationships on a global scale, is constructed. The readiness to relocate between countries and the implications for the children is illuminated. The onward migration to Egypt is highlighted as an example. According to research on Somalis in diaspora, they explain their propensity to move by claiming to be nomads, but this article indicates that it is also about their desire for better opportunities in combination with the cultural and economic marginalisation experienced in the West.

Agar, M 1996, The professional stranger: an informal introduction to ethnography, Academic Press, New York.

Al Sharmani, M 2007, ‘Diasporic somalis in Cairo: the poetics and practices of soomaalinimo’, in From Mogadishu to Dixon - the somali diaspora in a global context, eds. AM Kusow & SR Bjork, The Red Sea Press, Trenton, NJ, pp. 71-94.

Alitolppa-Niitamo, A 2004, The icebreakers - Somali-speaking youth in Metropolitan Helsinki with a focus on the context of formal education, PhD Thesis, The Family Federation of Finland - The Population Research Institute, Helsinki.

Basch, L, Glick-Schiller, N & Blanc-Szanton, C 1994, Nations unbound - transnational projects, postcolonial predicaments and deterritorialized Nation-States, Gordon & Breach, New York.

Berns McGown, R 1999, Muslims in the diaspora. The Somali Communities of London and Toronto, University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Bjork, S 2007, ‘Modernity meets clan: cultural intimacy in the somali diaspora’, in From Mogadishu to Dixon - the somali diaspora in a global context, eds AM Kusow & SR Bjork, The Red Sea Press, Trenton, NJ, pp. 135-157.

Brinkemo, P 2004, Dumpad: Den sanna historien om Ahmed Hassan Ali, Tiden, Stockholm.

Carlson, B, Magnusson, K & Rönnqvist, S 2012, Somalier på arbetsmarknaden - har Sverige något att lära. Underlagsrapport 2 till Framtidskommissionen, Prime Minister’s Office, Stockholm.

Elliott, J 2010, ‘Imagining a gendered future. Children’s essays from the national child development study in 1996’, Sociology, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1073-1090.

Faist, T, Fauseer, M & Reisenauer, E 2013, Transnational migration, Polity Press, Cambridge.

Fouron, G & Glick Schiller, N 2002, ‘The generation of identity: redefining the second generation within a transnational social field’, in The changing face of home - the transnational lives of the second generation, eds. P Levitt & MC Waters, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, pp. 168-208.

Gardner, K 2012, ‘Transnational migration and the study of children: an introduction’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 889-912.

Gardner, K & Mand K 2012 ‘My away is here’: place, emplacement and mobility among British Bengali children’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol 38, no. 6, pp. 969-986.

Giorgas, D 2008, ‘Transnationlism and identity among the second generation’ in Ties to the homeland - second generation transnationalism, ed. H Lee, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle, pp. 53-71.

Hägglund, S 2006,‘Det hela barnet - vem är det? Reflektioner i anslutning till några texter av Nel Noddings’, Utbildning & Demokrati, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 43-60.

Haikkola, L 2011, ‘Transnational and local negotiations of identity: experiences from second-generation young people in Finland’, Nordic Journal of Migration Research, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 156-165.

Hammersley, M & Atkinson P 1995, Ethnography - principles in practice, Routledge, New York.

Heckathorn, DD 1997, ‘A new approach to the study of hidden populations’, Social Problems, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 174-199.

Horst, C 2006, Transnational nomads: how somalis cope with refugee life in the Dadaab Camps of Kenya, Berghahn Books, Oxford, New York.

Integrationsverket 2005, Integrationsbarometer 2005 - en rapport om allmänhetens inställning till integration, mångfald och diskriminering, Integrationsverkets skriftserie, Norrköping.

James, A & James, AL 2004, Constructing childhood: theory, policy and social practices, Palgrave MacMillan, New York.

Johnsdotter, S 2007a, ‘Släktträdet är långt.’ Somaliska familjer och de nationella regelverken’, in Transnationella rum - diaspora, migration och gränsöverskridande relationer, eds. E Olsson, C Lundqvist, A Rabo, L Sawyer, Ö Wahlbeck & L Åkesson, Boréa, Umeå, pp. 115-136.

Johnsdotter, S 2007b, ‘Dumpning av svensk-somaliska barn? Om familjer, föräldrar och barn i en transnationell kontext’ in Globala familjer - transnationell migration och släktskap, eds M Eastmond & L Åkesson, Gidlunds förlag, Stockholm, pp. 145-173.

Kağıtçıbaşı, Ç 2007, Family, self and human development across cultures - theory and applications, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahvah, NJ.

Kroner, G-K 2007, ‘Transit or dead end? The somali diaspora in Egypt’, in From Mogadishu to Dixon - the somali diaspora in a global context, eds AM Kusow & S Bjork, The Red Sea Press, Trenton, NJ, pp. 45-70.

Kusow, AM & Bjork, SR 2007, From Mogadishu to Dixon - the somali diaspora in a global context, The Red Sea Press, Trenton, NJ.

Lee, N 2005, Childhood and human value - development, separation and separability, Open University Press, New York.

Levitt, P 2009, ‘Roots and routes: understanding the lives of the second generation transnationally’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 1225-1242.

Levitt, P & Waters, MC 2002, The changing face of home - the transnational lives of the second generation, Russell Sage Foundation, New York.

Lewis, I M 2002, A modern history of the somali, James Currey, Oxford. van Liempt, I 2011, ‘Young Dutch Somalis in the UK: citizenship, identities and belonging in a transnational triangle’, Mobilities, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 569-583.

Lindley, A 2010, ‘Leaving Mogadishu. Towards a sociology of conflictrelated mobility’, Journal of Refugee Studies, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 2-22.

Mayall, B 2008, ‘Conversations with children - working with generational issues’ in Research with children - perspectives and practice, eds. P Christensen & A James, Routledge, New York, pp. 109-122.

Mella, O, Palm, I & Bromark K 2011, Mångfaldsbarometern 2011, Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala.

Mohme, G 2014 ‘Imagined adulthood under transition - Somali- Swedish girls’ life-planning in a late modernity context’, Gender and Education, vol. 26, no. 4, pp 432-447.

Mukhtar, M H 1995, ‘Islam in Somali history: fact and fiction’ in The invention of Somalia, ed. AJ Ahmed, The Red Sea Press, Lawrenceville, NJ, pp. 1-28.

Olsson, E & Farahani, F 2012, ‘Introduction’, Nordic Journal of Migration Research, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 99-101.

Orellana, MJ, Thorne B, Chee A & Shun W 2001, ‘Transnational childhood. The participation of children in processes of family migration’, Social Problems, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 572-591.

Osman, A 2012, ‘In search of green pastures’, Nordic Journal of Migration Research, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 133-140.

Parreñas, RS 2005, Children of global migration. Transnational families and gendered woes, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.

Portes, A & RG Rumbaut 2001, Legacies - the story of the immigrant second generation. Russel Sage Foundation, New York.

Putnam, RD 2000, 2005, Bowling alone - the collapse and revival of American Community. Simon & Schuster, New York.

Qvortrup, J 2005, ‘Varieties of childhood’, in Studies in modern childhood, ed. J Qvortrup, Palgrave MacMillan, New York, pp. 1-20.

Rutter, J 2006, Refugee children in the UK, Open University Press, Berkshire.

Salat, OA 2010, Settling in? A case study of Somalian refugees living in Stockholm, Sweden, PhD Thesis, University of Birmingham, Birmingham.

Sanders, J & Munford, R 2008, ‘Losing self to the future? Young women’s strategic responses to adulthood transitions’, Journal of Youth Studies, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 331-346.

Smith, RC 2002, ‘Life course, generation and social location as factors shaping second-generation transnational life’ in The changing face of home - the transnational lives of the second generation, eds. P Levitt & MC Waters, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, pp. 145-167.

Smith, RC 2006, Mexican New York - transnational lives of new generations, California University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Sommer, D, Pramling-Samuelsson I & Hundeide K 2010, Child perspectives and children´s perspectives in theory and practice, Springer, New York.

Spradley, JP 1979, The ethnographic interview, Wadsworth Publishing, Belmont, CA.

Statistiska Centralbyrån 2013, Befolkning efter födelseland och ursprungsland 31 December 2012, Available from: . [Last accessed 8.3.2013].

Steedman, C 1980, ‘The tidy house’, Feminist Review, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-24.

Vertovec, S 2009, Transnationalism, Routledge, New York.

Journal Information

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 153 153 14
PDF Downloads 54 54 4