The purpose of this introductory article is to set the stage for the theme issue on the 22 July 2011 terror attacks in Oslo and Utøya by mass murderer, Anders Behring Breivik. The article opens up with the historical and literary figure Erostratus to discuss the differences and similarities between this lone wolf character and the acts of terrorist Anders Behring Breivik. It then situates Breivik firmly within an ideological landscape where communities of politicians, pundits and others distance themselves from Breivik’s terrorising acts, yet in the end share his basic criticism of “multiculturalism” appearing synonymous with “cultural Marxism” as well as subscribing to what goes under the term of Eurabia conspiracy. In addition, through centring on other catch-all concept of political correctness, the clusters of different anti-migration, anti-feminism and Islamophobic opposition are united together in news articles in a way not unlike the media coverage (and academic analyses) of the Danish Muhammad cartoon affair.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Bakhtin, MM 1981, The dialogic imagination: four essays by M.M.Bakhtin, ed. ME Emerson & M Holquest,University of Texas Press, Austin.
Balibar, E 2005, ‘Difference, Otherness, Exclusion’, Parallax, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 19-34.
Barker, M 1981, The New Racism: Conservatives and the Ideology of the Tribe. Junction Books, London.
Bawer, B 2012, The new Quislings: how the international left used the Oslo Massacre to silence debate about Islam, Harper & Collins, London and New York.
Berwick, A 2011, 2083 - A European declaration of independence. De Laude Novae Militiae Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici, London (pseudonym of Anders Behring Breivik).
Betz, H-G & Meret, S 2009,‘Revisiting Lepanto: the political mobilisation against Islam in contemporary Western Europe’, Patterns of Prejudice, vol. 43, no. 3-4, pp. 313-334.
Boe, CS & Hervik P 2008, ‘Integration through insult’, in Transnational media events. The Mohammed cartoons and the imagined clash of civilizations,eds E. Eide, K. Risto &A. Phillips, Nordicom, Gothenburg, pp. 213-234.
Collins, A & Gentner, D 1987,‘How people construct mental models‘, in Cultural models in language and thought, eds D Holland & N Quinn, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 242-265.
Clausewitz, C. Von 1984, On war, Princeton University Press, Rev ed Princeton, NJ.
Court Statement 2012-04-17 (Open Statement), Available from: <https://sites.google.com/site/breivikreport/documents/anders-breivik-court-statement-2012-04-17>.[lastaccessed 23.09.2013].
Court Transcript 2012-04-19, Available from: <https://sites.google.com/site/breivikreport/transcripts/anders-breivik-courttranscript-2012-04-19-live-report>.[last accessed 23.09.2013].
Devji, F 2005, Landscapes of the Jihad, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.
Eide, E et al. 2013, ‘After the 22 July terror in Norway: media debates on freedom of expression and multiculturalism’, Nordic Journal of Migration Research, vol. 3, no. 4.
Gourevitch, P 1998, We wish to inform you that tomorrow we will be killed with our families: stories from Rwanda, Farar, Straus & Giroux, New York.
Hervik, P 2002, Mediernes muslimer. En antropologisk undersøgelse af mediernes dækning af religioner i Danmark, The Board for Ethnic Equality, Copenhagen.
Hervik, P 2011, The annoying difference. The emergence of Danish Neonationalism, Neoracism, and Populism in the post-1989 world, Berghahn Books, New York and Oxford.
Hervik, P 2012, The Danish Muhammad cartoon conflict, Current Themes in IMER Research, vol. 13, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM), Malmö University.
Hervik, P & Boisen, S 2013, ‘Danish Media Coverage of 22/7’, Nordic Journal of Migration Research, vol. 3, no. 4.
Hjarvard, S 2008, ‘The mediatization of society. A theory of the media as agents of social and cultural change’, Nordicom Review, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 105-134.
Jenkins, R 2008, Rethinking ethnicity, 2nd edition, Sage, London.
Keskinen, S 2013, ‘Anti-feminism and white identity politics - political antagonisms in radical right-wing populist and anti-immigration rhetoric in Finland’, Nordic Journal of Migration Research, vol. 3, no. 4.
Lakoff, G & Kövecses, Z 1987, ‘The cognitive model of anger inherent in American English’, in Cultural Models in Language and Thought, eds Dorothy Holland & Naomi Quinn, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 195-221.
Lakoff, G & Johnson, M 1980, Metaphors we live by, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Lentin, A 2004, Racism and anti-racism in Europe, Pluto Press, London and Ann Arbor.
Lutz, CA & Collins J 1993, Reading national geographic, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Moeller, S 1989, Shooting war: photography and the American Experience of Combat, Basic Books, New York.
Nordstrom, C 1997, A different kind of war story, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.
Oslo District Court. Judgement of Anders Behring Breivik 2012-08-24, Available from: https://sites.google.com/site/breivikreport/documents/judgment-of-anders-behring-breivik-2012-08-24 [last accessed 24.09.2013].
Poletta, F 1999, ‘Free-spaces in collective action’, Theory and Society, vol. 28, pp. 1-38.
Quinn, N 1991, ‘The cultural basis of metaphor’ in Beyond metaphor. The theory of tropes in anthropology, ed. JW Fernandez, Stanford University Press, Stanford, pp. 56-93.
Rabinow, P 2010, The Foucault reader, Vintage Books Edition, New York.
Sartre, J-P 1939, Le Mur, Gallimard, Paris [Translated from French by Alexander, L 1969, The Wall. intimacy and other stories, A New Directions Paperbook].
Seymour, R 2011, ‘2083: ‘Breivik’s 21st-century fascist manifesto’, in On Utøya: Anders Breivik, Right Terror, Racism and Europe, eds R Humphrys, E Guy &T Tietze, Elguta Press, e-book.
Simi, P & Futrell, R 2010, American Swastika: Inside the white power movement’s hidden spaces of hate, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Lanham, Md.
Snow, DA & Cross, R 2011, ‘Radicalism within the context of social movements: processes and types’, Journal of Strategic Security, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 115-130.
Stolcke, V 1995, ‘Talking Culture: New Boundaries, New Rhetorics of Exclusion in Europe’, Current Anthropology vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 1-24.
Titley, G 2013, ‘They called a war, and someone came: the communicative politics of Breivik’s ideoscape’, Nordic Journal of Migration Research, vol. 3, no. 4. van Djik, T 1998, Ideology. A multidisciplinary approach, Sage Publications, London. van Buuren, J 2013, ‘Spur to Violence? Anders Behring Breivik and the Eurabia Conspiracy’, Nordic Journal of Migration Research, vol. 3, no. 4.
Walton JS 2012, ‘Anti-feminism and Misogyny in Breivik’s “Manifesto”’, NORA - Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 4-11.