The Link Between the Transnational Behaviour and Integration of the Second Generation in European and American Cities

Open access

The Link Between the Transnational Behaviour and Integration of the Second Generation in European and American Cities

This article investigates the transnational behaviour of the children of immigrants - the second generation - in 11 European and two U.S. cities. We find evidence that transnational practices such as visits to the home country, remittances and use of ethnic media persist only among a minority of the second generation. At a personal level, these second-generation transmigrants are less socio-culturally integrated but more economically integrated in the host country. They also tend to live in those cities and countries with policies that are more assimilationist or exclusionary than multicultural.

  • Alba, RD & Nee, V 2003, Remaking the American mainstream: assimilation and contemporary immigration, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

  • Ambrosetti, E, Cela, E & Fokkema, T 2011, The remittances behaviour of the second generation in Europe: altruism or self-interest? Quaderno di Ricerca No. 368. Dipartimento di Scienze Economische e Sociali, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona.

  • Bean, F, Brown, SK, Bachmeier, JD, Fokkema, T, Lessard-Phillips, L & Mollenkopf, JH 2010, ‘Urban contexts and immigrant integration: a comparative examination of second-generation incorporation in U. S. and European cities’, Conference on comparative perspectives on the second generation in Europe and the United States, Russell Sage Foundation, New York.

  • Calinski, T & Harabasz, J 1974, ‘A dendrite method for cluster analysis’, Communications in Statistics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-27.

  • Castles, S & Miller, MJ 2009, The age of migration: international population movements in the modern world, 4th edition, The Guildford Press, New York.

  • Crul, M, Schneider, J & Lelie, F (eds) (2012), The European second generation compared: does the integration context matter?, Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.

  • de Haas, H & Fokkema, T 2010, ‘Intra-household conflicts in migration decisionmaking: return and pendulum migration in Morocco’, Population and Development Review, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 541-561, DOI: 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2010.00345.x.

  • Eckstein, S & Barberia, L 2002, ‘Grounding immigrant generations in history: Cuban Americans and their transnational ties’, International Migration Review, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 799-837, DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2002.tb00105.x.

  • Espiritu, YL 2003, Home bound Filipino lives across cultures, communities, and countries, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

  • Foner, N 2005, In a new land: a comparative view of immigration. New York University Press, New York.

  • Foner, N 2007, ‘How exceptional is New York? Migration and multiculturalism in the empire city’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 999-1023, DOI: 10.1080/01419870701599440.

  • Fouron, GE & Glick Schiller, N 2002, ‘The generation of identity: redefining the second generation within a transnational social field’, in The changing face of home: the transnational lives of the second generation, eds P Levitt & MC Waters, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, pp. 168-208.

  • Ganzeboom, HBG & Treiman, DJ 1996, ‘Internationally comparable measures of occupational status for the 1988 International standard classification of occupations’, Social Science Research, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 201-239.

  • Glazer, N & Moynihan, DP 1970, Beyond the melting pot: the Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Jews, Italians, and Irish of New York city (Second Edition), MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

  • Glick Schiller, N, Basch, L & Blanc-Szanton, C 2006, ‘Transnationalism: a new analytic framework for understanding migration’, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 645, pp. 1-24, DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1992.tb33484.x.

  • Gordon, MM 1964, Assimilation in American life: the role of race, religion, and national origins, Oxford University Press, New York.

  • Granovetter, MS 1995, Getting a job: a study of contacts and careers (Second edition), University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

  • Grasmuck, S & Pessar, PR 1991, Between two islands: Dominican international migration, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

  • Groenewold, G & Lessard-Phillips, L (2012) ‘Research methodology’, in The European second generation compared: does the integration context matter?, eds M Crul, J Schneider & F Lelie, Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.

  • Guarnizo, L, Portes, A & Haller, W 2003, ‘Assimilation and transnationalism: determinants of transnational political action among contemporary migrants’, American Journal of Sociology, vol. 108, no. 6, pp. 1211-1248.

  • Hirsch, JS 2000, ‘En El Norte La Mujer Manda: gender, generation, and geography in a Mexican transnational community’, in Immigration research for a new century: multidisciplinary perspectives, eds N Foner, RG Rumbaut & SJ Gold, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, pp. 369-389.

  • Hondagneu-Sotelo, P 1994, Gendered transitions: Mexican experiences of immigration, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

  • Jolliffe, IT 2002, Principal component analysis (Second edition), Springer-Verlag, New York.

  • Kasinitz, P, Mollenkopf, JH, Waters, MC & Holdaway, J 2008, Inheriting the city: the children of immigrants come of age, Russell Sage Foundation and Harvard University Press, New York and Cambridge, Mass.

  • Kasinitz, P, Waters, MC, Mollenkopf, JH & Anil, M 2002, ‘Transnationalism and the children of immigrants in contemporary New York’, in The changing face of home: the transnational social lives of the second generation, eds P Levitt & MC Waters, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, pp. 96-122.

  • Lee, H 2007, ‘Transforming transnationalism: second generation Tongans overseas’, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 157-178.

  • Lee, H (ed.) 2008, Ties to the homeland: second generation transnationalism, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, United Kingdom.

  • Levitt, P, DeWind, J & Vertovec, S 2003, ‘International perspectives on transnational migration: an introduction’, International Migration Review, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 565-575.

  • Levitt, P & Jaworsky, BN 2007, ‘Transnational migration studies: past developments and future trends’, Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 33, pp. 129-156, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.soc.33.040406.131816.

  • Louie, V 2006, ‘Second-generation pessimism and optimism: how Chinese and Dominicans understand education and mobility through ethnic and transnational orientations’, International Migration Review, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 537-572, DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2006.00035.x.

  • Portes, A 1999, ‘Conclusion: towards a new world - the origins and effects of transnational activities’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 463-477, DOI: 10.1080/014198799329567.

  • Portes, A, Escobar, C & Arana, R 2009, ‘Divided or convergent loyalties? The political incorporation process of Latin American immigrants in the United States’, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 103-136.

  • Portes, A, Haller, WJ & Guarnizo, LE 2002, ‘Transnational entrepreneurs: an alternative form of immigrant economic adaptation’, American Sociological Review, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 278-298.

  • Portes, A, & Rumbaut, RG 2001, Legacies: the story of the immigrant second generation, University of California Press, Berkeley, California, USA.

  • Portes, A & Zhou, M 1993, ‘The new second generation: segmented assimilation and its variants’, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, vol. 530, pp. 74-96.

  • Pries, L 2005, ‘Configurations of geographic and societal spaces: a sociological proposal between ‘methodological nationalism’ and the ‘spaces of flows’’, Global Networks, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 167-190, DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0374.2005.00113.x.

  • Rumbaut, RG 2002, ‘Severed or sustained attachments? Language, identity, and imagined communities in the post-immigrant generation’, in The changing face of home: the transnational social lives of the second generation, eds P Levitt & MC Waters, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, pp. 43-95.

  • Rumbaut, RG, Bean, FD, Chavez, LR, Lee, J, Brown, SK, DeSipio, L & Zhou, M 2004, Immigration and Intergenerational Mobility in Metropolitan Los Angeles (IIMMLA), [Computer file]. ICPSR22627-v1. Irvine, CA: Rubén G. Rumbaut, Frank D. Bean, Jennifer Lee, and Susan K. Brown, University of California-Irvine, Department of Sociology, Leo R. Chavez, Department of Anthropology, Louis DeSipio, Department of Political Science/ Los Angeles, CA: Min Zhou, University of California-Los Angeles, Department of Sociology [producers], 2008. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-07-01.

  • Smith, RC 2006, Mexican New York: transnational lives of new immigrants, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

  • Taylor, JE 1999, ‘The new economics of labour migration and the role of remittances in the migration process’, International Migration, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 63-88.

  • van Dalen, HP, Groenewold, G & Fokkema, T 2005, ‘The effect of remittances on emigration intentions in Egypt, Morocco, and Turkey’, Population Studies, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 375-392, DOI: 10.1080/00324720500249448.

  • Waldinger, R 1996, ‘From Ellis Island to LAX: immigrant prospects in the American City’, International Migration Review, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 1078-1086.

  • Waldinger, R & Fitzgerald, D 2004, ‘Transnationalism in question’, American Journal of Sociology, vol. 109, pp. 1177-1195.

  • Warner, WL & Srole, L 1945, The social systems of American ethnic groups, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

  • Zhou, M 1997, ‘Growing up American: the challenge confronting immigrant children and children of immigrants’, Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 23, pp. 63-95.

Nordic Journal of Migration Research

The Journal of Nordic Migration Research

Journal Information


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 12 12 12
PDF Downloads 3 3 3