Access to Socio-Cultural Life inside Assisted Care Homes?

Overviewing Legislation in Finland and Kazakhstan

Open access

Abstract

This is a comparative survey of two national legal frameworks in Finland and Kazakhstan providing the elderly in assisted care homes with an opportunity of socio-cultural inclusion. The study departs from the evolving international standards of ageing, which dictate legal obligations to provide the elderly in residential care with access to socio-cultural activities. Our analysis continues with explorations how these standards are reflected in legislation of two selected states. We deliberately selected these two jurisdictions, different in many respects, the most significant of which are the current state of the welfare system and the approach towards elderly care. The residential care in Finland is the primary responsibility of the state, a common modern solution adapted to meet the realities of the modern volatile labor market, career and self-oriented life style and hectic differentiating global economy. In Kazakhstan such care is provided by the state only for those older persons who are in difficult life situation, whereas the able relatives are legally responsible for providing care for the elderly in need of 24 / 7 assistance. Respectively Kazakhstan’s social order relies extensively on family ties.

Our analysis covers the status of the elderly residing both in 24 / 7 institutional care and in the so-called serviced apartments where the elderly are not in constant care. Rather than drawing on the generalized status of dependency we keep up with the premise that the elderly are special-rights holders. This limitation leaves studying the position of other individuals under public custody out of the present research agenda. Relying extensively on legal analysis, we employ, in particular, a comparative law method and empirical studies, i.e. the interviews with the aged rights holders.

After we examined how the opportunities for socio-cultural inclusion of the elderly are implemented in two selected jurisdictions with principally different welfare systems, we found that the problem in question is topical for each of the states under consideration. In light of the evolving international law standards institutional practices in both jurisdictions must be sensitive to the issue of socio-cultural inclusion. The socio-cultural dimension of the wellbeing of the elderly, especially with respect to those who are in 24 / 7 care, should be incorporated in the legal system of Kazakhstan just as it exists in the statutory law of Finland.

Bender, K., Keller S., and Willing, H. 2014. “Insights into the Role of International Policy Networks for International Policy Transfer and Policy Learning in Social Protection.” IZNE Social Protection Working Paper from the International Centre for Sustainable Development (IZNE), Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences. Available at http://econpapers.repec.org/paper/sauiznewp/1402.htm (last accessed DATE).

Catalano, L. A. and Lazaro, C. 2008. “Financial Abuse of the Elderly: Protecting the Vulnerable.” PIABA Bar Journal (fall 2008) VOL, 11 – 15.

The Commonwealth of Independent States, Interparliamentary Assembly. 1998. Decree No. 11 – 15, “O Khartii pozhilykh liudei” (signed in St. Petersburg, 15 June 1998). Informatsionnyi biulleten’. Mezhparlamentskaiia Assambleia gosudarst-uchastnikov Sodruzhestva Nesavisimykh Gosudarstv 18, 231 – 233.

Constitution of Finland. 1999. Adopted on 11 June 1999, reproduced in the database of Finnish legislation “Finlex.” Available at http://www.finlex.fi/sv/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990731.pdf (last accessed 7. 11. 2016).

Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan. 1995. Adopted on 30 August 1995. Vedomosti Parlamenta Respubliki Kazahstan 1996(4), item 217.

Council of Europe 1988. Additional Protocol to the European Social Charter. Explanatory Report. Available at https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommon-SearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?documentId=09000016800ccde4 (last accessed 7. 11. 2016) Place: Publisher.

Council of Europe. European Social Charter (Revised). 1996. Adopted on 3 May 1996, entered into force on 1 July 1999, ETS 163.

Council of Europe. Protocol No. 12 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Adopted on 4 November 2000, entered into force on 1 April 2005, ETS. No. 177.

Dmitriev, S. V. 2006. “Materialy revizii senatora K. K. Palena po traditsionnomu semeinomu pravu kazakhov kontsa XIX – nachala XX veka”. Vestnik Novosibirskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriia “Istoriia, filologiia”. 5 (3), 123 – 139.

Finland, Act on Patient’s Position and Rights (785 / 1992). 1992. Reproduced in the database of Finnish legislation “Finlex.” Available at http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1992/1992078 (last accessed 7. 11. 2016 DATE).

Finland, Act on Supporting the Functional Capacity of the Older Population and on Social and Health Care Services for Older Persons (980 / 2012). 2012. Reproduced in the database of Finnish legislation “Finlex.” Available at http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2012/20120980?search%5Btype%5D=pika&search%5Bpika%5D=Laki%20ik%C3%A4%C3%A4ntyneen%20v%C3%A4est%C3%B6n%20toimintakyvyn%20tukemisesta%20sek%C3%A4%20i%C3%A4kk%C3%A4iden%20sosiaali-%20ja%20terveyspalveluista (last accessed 7. 11. 2016DATE).

Finland, the Finnish National Supervisory Authority for Welfare and Health. 2014 YEAR. Yksityisten sosiaalipalvelujen ja julkisten vanhuspalvelujen omavalvontasuunnitelman sisältöä, laatimista ja seurantaa koskeva määräys. Available at http://finlex.fi/data/normit/41771-Maarays_sosiaalipalvelujen_omavalvontasuunnitelma.pdf (last accessed 7. 11. 2016DATE).

Finland, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health of Finland and the Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities. 2013. YEAR. Quality recommendation to guarantee a good quality of life and improved services for older persons. Available at http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-00-3443-6 (last accessed 7. 11. 2016 DATE).

Finland, Non-Discrimination Act (21 / 2004). 2004. The text of this act in English is reproduced in the database of Finnish legislation “Finlex.” Available at http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/2004/en20040021.pdf (last accessed 7. 11. 2016 DATE).

Finland, Social Welfare Act (Sosiaalihuoltolaki; No.1301 / 2014). 2014. Reproduced in the database of Finnish legislation “Finlex.” Available at http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2014/20141301?search%5Btype%5D=pika&search%5Bpika%5D=Sosiaalihuoltolaki (last accessed 7. 11. 2016).

Garner, Bryan A. (ed.). 2007. Black’s Law Dictionary. 8th edn. St. Paul, USA: Thomson, West.

Gaughan, J. G. 2008. “Institutionalization as Discrimination: How Medicaid Waivers, the ADA, and § 1983 Fail.” University of Kansas Law Review (January), 405 – 438.

De Hert, P., Mantovani, E. 2011 “Specific Human Rights for Older Persons ? The inevitable colouring of Human Rights Law”. European Human Rights Law Review (4) 4, 398 – 418.

Hug, W. 1932. “The History of Comparative Law.” Harvard Law Review 45, 1027 – 1070.

Husa, J. 2015. New Introduction to Comparative Law. Oxford: Hart Publishing.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. 1966. Adopted by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966, entered into force 23 March 1976, UN Doc. A / 6316 (1966), 999 UNTS. 171.

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. 1966. Adopted by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966, entered into force 3 January 1976, UN Doc. A / 6316 (1966), 993 UNTS. 3.

Kanter, A. S. 1991 / 1992. “Abandoned but not Forgotten: The Illegal Confinement of Elderly People in State Psychiatric Institutions.” New York University Review of Law and Social Change 19VOL, 273 – 307.

Kapp, M. B. 2003. Book Review: Elder Mistreatment: Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation in An Aging America. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Marquette Elder’s Advisor 5(1), 121 – 128.

Kazakhstan, the Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan of 26 December 2011 (518-IV). 2011. “On Marriage (Matrimony) and Family.” Vedomosti Parlamenta Respubliki Kazakhstan 2011(22), item 174.

Kazakhstan, Criminal Code of 3 July 2014 (226-V). 2014. Vedomosti Parlamenta Respubliki Kazahstan 2014(13), item 83.

Kazakhstan, 2014. Kolichestvo i struktura organizatsii po predostavleniiu sotsial’nykh uslug s obespecheniem prozhivaniia. Available at stat.gov.kz (last accessed 7. 11. 2016).

Kazakhstan, the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan of 29 December 2008 (114-IV). 2008. “On Special Social Services.” Kazakhstanskaia Pravda, 31 December 2008, 296 – 297.

Kembayev, Zh. 2012. Introduction to the Law of Kazakhstan. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.

Knaplund, K. S. 2009. “The Right of Privacy and America’s Aging Population.” Denver University Law Review 86 (2) VOL, 439 – 456.

Koskinen, S., L. Aalto, S. Hakonen and E. Päivärinta. 1998. Vanhustyö [Social work with the aged persons]. Vanhustyön keskusliitto. (Helsinki: Gummeruksen kirjapaino).

Kotkas, T. 2012. “Basic Feature of Finnish Social Law.” In K. Nuotio, S. Melander and M. Huomo-Kettunen (eds). Introduction to Finnish Law and Legal Culture. Helsinki: Forum Iuris, 261 – 271.

Loue, S. 2001. “Elder Abuse and Neglect in Medicine and Law: The Need for Reform.” Journal of Legal Medicine 22 (2) VOL, 159 – 209.

Martin, L. and S. Preston (eds). 1994. Demography of Ageing. Washington, DCPlace: National Academies Press.

Obobshchenie vytekaiushchim iz brachno-semeinykh otnoshenii: o vzuskanii alimentov na soderzhanie roditelei. 5 November 2015. Available at http://eaias.sud.kz/index.xhtml (last accessed 7. 11. 2016).

Paasivaara, L. 2002. Tavoitteet ja tosiasiallinen toiminta: Suomalaisen vanhusten hoitotyön muotoutuminen monitasotarkastelussa 1930-luvulta 2000-luvulle [The official goals and the actual practices: Multilevel analysis of the formation of the Finnish nursing work for aged persons from the 1930s until the 2000s]. Doctoral thesis. University of Oulu. Available at http://jultika.oulu.fi/files/isbn9514269012.pdf (last accessed 7. 11. 2016).

Pearce, J. A., J. J. O’Brien and D. A. Rapisarda 2009. “Protecting Nursing Home Residents from Attacks on their Ability to Recover Damages.” Rutgers Law Review 61 (3) VOL, 705 – 750.

Rodríguez-Pinzón, D. and C. Martin. 2003. “The International Human Rights Status of Elderly Persons.” American University International Law Review 18 (4), 916 – 1008.

Stasevitch, I. V. 2009. “Brak i sem’ia u kazakhov v kontse XIX – nachale ХХI v. Vremia i traditsiia.” In R. R. Rakhimov and M. E. Rezvan (eds). Tsentral’naia Aziia: traditsiia v usloviiakh peremen. Title. St. Petersburg: MAE RAN, 90 – 111.

Tanenbaum, S. 2015. “What is Patient-Centered Care ? A Typology of Models and Missions.” Health Care Analysis 23, 272 – 287.

UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. 1995. General Comment No. 6, The Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of Older Persons (Thirteenth session, 1995). UN Doc. E / 1996 / 22 at 20 (1996), par. 12.

UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. 2009. General Comment No. 21, Right of everyone to take part in cultural life (art. 15, para. 1 (a), of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights) (Forty-third session, 2009). UN Doc. E / C.12 / GC / 21.

UN General Assembly. 2010. Sixty-Fifth Session. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 21 December 2010, UN Doc. A / RES / 65 / 182. Available at http://www.un.org/Docs/journal/asp/ws.asp?m=A/RES/65/182 (last accessed 7. 11. 2016).

UN General Assembly. 2012. Sixty-Seventh Session. “Towards a comprehensive and integral international legal instrument to promote and protect the rights and dignity of older persons.” Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 20 December 2012, UN Doc. A / RES / 67 / 139, Preamble.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 1948. Adopted by General Assembly resolution 217A (III) of 10 December 1948, UN Doc. A / 810 at 71 (1948), reproduced at the official web-page of the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and available at http://www.ohchr.org/en/udhr/pages/language.aspx?langid=eng (last accessed 7. 11. 2016).

Journal Information

CiteScore 2018: 0.57

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.267
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.411

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 189 143 5
PDF Downloads 102 88 6