The Relationship between Spiritual Intelligence and Work Satisfaction among Leaders and Employees

Open access


This study aims to investigate the relationship between spiritual intelligence and work satisfaction among both leaders and employees. Most studies in this area have focused on researching the relationship between employees’ spiritual intelligence and work satisfaction, so we also researched the relationship between leaders’ spiritual intelligence and work satisfaction. Our leading thesis was that leaders and employees with a higher level of spiritual intelligence have a higher level of work satisfaction. In our study, we found no significant relationship between spiritual intelligence and work satisfaction for leaders, but we found a significant positive relationship between spiritual intelligence and workplace satisfaction for employees.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Amram Y. (2009). The contribution of emotional and spiritual intelligences to effective business leadership. Palo Alto CA: Institute of Transpersonal Psychology.

  • 2. Amram Yosi & Dryer Christopher. (2007). The Development and Preliminary Validation of the Integrated Spiritual Intelligence Scale (ISIS). Palo Alto CA: Institute of Transpersonal Psychology Working Paper. Available on

  • 3. Beagrie R. (1999). Why the future belongs to value added companies. The Journal for Quality & Participation 22(1) 884-895. Retrieved from

  • 4. Brayfield A. H. & Rothe H. F. (1951). An index of job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology 35(5) 307-311. Retrieved from

  • 5. Brown E. (1999). America’s most admired companies. Fortune 1(3) 68-73.

  • 6. Cohen A. B. (2002). The importance of spirituality in well-being for Jews and Christians. Journal of Happiness Studies 3 287-310. Retrieved from

  • 7. Covey S. R. (1990). Principle-centered leadership. New York: Fireside.

  • 8. Crossman A. & Abou-Zaki B. (2003). Job satisfaction and employee performance of Lebanese banking staff. Journal of Managerial Psychology 18(4) 368-376. Retrieved from

  • 9. Deming W. E. (1981). Improvement of quality and productivity through action by management. National Productivity Review 1(1) 12-22. Retrieved from

  • 10. Emmons R. A. (2000). Is spirituality an intelligence? The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 10 27-34. Retrieved from

  • 11. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. (2007). Measuring job satisfaction in surveys-comparative analytical report. Retrieved from

  • 12. Evans L. (1997). Understanding teacher morale and job satisfaction. Teaching and Teacher Education 13(8) 831-245. Retrieved from

  • 13. Fairholm G. W. (2000). Capturing the heart of leadership (spirituality and community in the new American workplace). Westpoint CT London: Praeger.

  • 14. Fry L. W. (2003). Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The Leadership Quarterly 14(6) 693-727. Retrieved from

  • 15. Gardner H. (1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: Basic Books.

  • 16. George D. & Mallery P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

  • 17. George M. (2006). Practical application of spiritual intelligence in the workplace. Emerald Group Publishing Limited 3-5. Retrieved from

  • 18. Halama P. & Strizenec M. (2004). Spiritual existential or both? Theoretical considerations on the nature of higher intelligences. Studia Psychologica 43 239-253. Retrieved from

  • 19. King D. B. (2008). Rethinking claims of spiritual intelligence: A definition model & measure (Unpublished master’s thesis). Trent University Peterborough.

  • 20. Landy F. J. Shankster L. J. & Kohler S. S. (1994). Personnel selection and placement. Annual Review of Psychology 45 261-296. Retrieved from http://org/doi/10.1037/0021-9010.83.1.3

  • 21. Mahajan R. (2015). Study of the relationship of research contribution and professional exposure of Indian agricultural scientists with their self-destructive intelligence syndrome and spiritual intelligence: Degree. India: Kumaun University.

  • 22. Marques J. F. (2006). The spiritual worker: An examination of the ripple effect that enhances quality of life in- and outside the work environment. Emerald Group Publishing Limited 884-895. Retrieved from

  • 23. Mihalič R. (2008). Povečajmo zadovoljstvo in pripadnost zaposlenih: praktični nasveti metodologija interni akt in model usposabljanja za upravljanje in merjenje zadovoljstva in pripadnosti zaposlenih z ukrepi za večje zadovoljstvo pri delu in pripadnost organizaciji: priročnik. Škofja Loka: Mihalič in partner.

  • 24. Musek J. (2008). Duhovna inteligentnost: struktura in povezave. Anthropos 3-4 259-106. Retrieved from

  • 25. Musek J. & Maravič K. (2004). Vrednote in duhovna inteligentnost. Retrieved from

  • 26. Nguyen A. N. Taylor Y. & Bradley S. (2003). Job autonomy and job satisfaction: Some new evidence (Working paper 045). Department of Economics: Lancaster University Management School. Retrieved from

  • 27. Nodehi H. & Nehardani H. (2013). Relation between spiritual intelligence and job satisfaction. Journal of Social Issues & Humanities 1(5) 67-72. Retrieved from

  • 28. Perrone K. M. Webb K. L. Wright. S. L. Jackson V. Z. & Ksiazak Z. M. (2006). Relationship of spirituality to work and family roles and life satisfaction among gifted adults. Journal of Mental Health Counseling 28(3) 253-268. Retrieved from

  • 29. Rastgar A. A. Davoudi S. M. M. Oraji S. & Abbasian M. (2012). A study of the relationship between employees’ spiritual intelligence and job satisfaction: A survey in Iran’s banking industry. A Journal of Multidisciplinary Research 1(2) 57-74. Retrieved from

  • 30. Regent P. (2013). Obremenjenost in zadovoljstvo pri delu v odnosu do izgorelosti učiteljev (doktorska disertacija). Ljubljana: Filozofska fakulteta Univerze v Ljubljani.

  • 31. Ronel N. (2008). The experience of spiritual intelligence. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology 40(1) 100-120. Retrieved from

  • 32. Sabadin A. (1978). Kvantitativni vidik analize strukture dela (doktorska disertacija). Ljubljana: Filozofska fakulteta Univerze v Ljubljani.

  • 33. Sadeghi H. Zamani A. & Mamasani A. N. (2015). Study the relationship between spiritual intelligence and emotion intelligence with the quality of work life Izeh principals. Journal of Scientific Research and Development 2(1) 187-190. Retrieved from

  • 34. Schwartz T. (1995). What really matters: Searching for wisdom in America. New York: Bantam.

  • 35. Shabani J. Hassan S. A. Ahmad A. & Baba M. (2010). Age as moderated influence on the link of spiritual and emotional intelligence with mental health in high school students. Journal of American Science 6(11) 394-400. Retrieved from

  • 36. Shaikh M. A. Bhutto N. A. & Maitlo Q. (2012). Facets of job satisfaction and its association with performance. International Journal of Business and Social Science 3(7) 322-326. Retrieved from

  • 37. Smith P. C. Kendall L. & Hulin C. L. (1969). The measurement of satisfaction in work and retirement: A strategy for the study of attitudes. Chicago: Rand McNally.

  • 38. Sousa-Poza A. & Sousa-Poza A. A. 2000. Well-being at work: a cross-national analysis of the levelsand determinants of job satisfaction. Journal of Socio-Economics 29 517-538

  • 39. Subramaniam M. & Panchanatham N. (2014). Relationship between emotional intelligence spiritual intelligence and wellbeing of management executives. Global Research Analysis 3(3) 92-94

  • 40. Šarotar Žižek S. (2008). Pomen osebnega in osebnostnega razvoja človeških virov v (slovenskem) turizmu. Academica Turistica: Fakulteta za turistične študije 3-4 42-48. Retrieved from

  • 41. Šarotar Žižek S. (2012). Vpliv psihičnega dobrega počutja na temelju zadostne in potrebne osebne celovitosti zaposlenega na uspešnost organizacije (doktorska disertacija). Maribor: Ekonomsko poslovna fakulteta Univerze v Mariboru.

  • 42. Šarotar Žižek S. Treven S. & Mulej M. (2011). Povezava med psihičnim dobrim počutjem zaposlenih in duhovno inteligentnostjo kot dejavniki primerno celovitega menedžmenta. Moderna organizacija. Maribor: Fakulteta za organizacijske vede.

  • 43. Thompson L. (2004). Moral leadership in a postmodern world. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies 11(1) 27-37.

  • 44. Tischler L. Biberman J. & McKeage R. (2002). Linking emotional intelligence spirituality and workplace performance: Definitions models and ideas for research. Journal of Managerial Psychology 17(3) 203-218. Retrieved from

  • 45. Vaughan F. (2002). What is spiritual intelligence? Journal of Humanistic Psychology 42(2) 16-33.

  • 46. Wigglesworth C. (2012). SQ21: The 21 skills of spiritual intelligence. New York: Selected Books.

  • 47. Wolf E. (2004). Spiritual leadership: a new model. Healthcare Executive 19(2) 22-25. Retrieved from

  • 48. Wolman R. N. (2001). Thinking with your soul: Spiritual intelligence and why it matters. New York: Harmony Books.

  • 49. Yahyazadeh-Jeloudar S. & Lotli-Goodarzi F. (2012). What is the relationship between spiritual intelligence and job satisfaction among MA and BA teachers? International Journal of Business and Social Science 3(8) 299-303. Retrieved from

  • 50. Zembylas M. & Papanastasiou E. (2004). Job satisfaction among school teachers in Cyprus. Journal of Educational Administration 42(3) 357-374. Retrieved from

  • 51. Zohar D. & Marshall I. (2000). SQ-Spiritual intelligence the ultimate intelligence. London: UL copy.

Journal information
Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 920 285 51
PDF Downloads 1963 1066 135