Similarities and Differences of Health-promoting Leadership and Transformational Leadership

Open access


The concept of health-promoting leadership focuses on the interaction between the organization and the individual by identifying components able to positively influence employees’ working conditions. In the present study, the effects of health-promoting leadership and transformational leadership on the employees’ recovery–stress balance are investigated. In an online study, 212 Slovenian workers were asked about their perceptions of their direct supervisors and their work-related stress and recovery. The results showed that both leadership styles have a significant effect on employees’ recovery at the workplace, which mediated the relationship between leadership and work-related stress.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Aitken P. (2007). ‘Walking the talk’: the nature and role of leadership culture within organisation culture/s. Journal of General Management 32(4) 17–37.

  • 2. Antonovsky A. (1997). Salutogenese. Zur Entmystifizierung der Gesundheit. Tübingen: dgvt-Verlag.

  • 3. Bakker A. B. Demerouti E. & Euwema M. (2005). Job resources buffer the impact of job demands on burnout. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology10(2) 170–180.

  • 4. Baron R. M. & Kenny D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51(6) 1173–1182.

  • 5. Bass B. M. (1991). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics 18(3) 19–31.

  • 6. Bass B. M. & Steidlmeier P. (1999). Ethics character and authentic transformational leadership behavior. Leadership Quarterly 10(2) 181–217.

  • 7. Brun J. & Dugas N. (2008). An analysis of employee recognition: Perspectives on human resources practices. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 19(4) 716–730.

  • 8. Cotton P. & Hart P. M. (2003). Occupational wellbeing and performance: A review of organisational health research. Australian Psychologist 38(2) 118–127.

  • 9. Densten I. L. (2005). The relationship between visioning behaviours of leaders and follower burnout. British Journal of Management 16(2) 105–118.

  • 10. Franke F. Felfe J. & Pundt A. (2014). The impact of health-oriented leadership on follower health: Development and test of a new instrument measuring health-promoting leadership. Zeitschrift für Personalforschung 28(1–2) 139–161.

  • 11. Felfe J. & Goihl K. (2014). Deutscher Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). In D. Danner & A. Glöckner-Rist (Eds.) Zusammenstellung sozialwissenschaftlicher Items und Skalen.

  • 12. Fornell C. & Larcker D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement errors. Journal of Marketing Research 18 39–50.

  • 13. Gill A. S. Flaschner A. B. & Shachar M. (2006). Mitigating stress and burnout by implementing transformational-leadership. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 18(6) 469–481.

  • 14. Grawitch M. J. Gottschalk M. & Munz D. C. (2006). The path to a healthy workplace. A critical review linking healthy workplace practices employee well-being and organizational improvements. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research 58(3) 129–147.

  • 15. Gurt J. Schwennen C. & Elke G. (2011). Health-specific leadership: Is there an association between leader consideration for the health of employees and their strain and well-being? Work & Stress 25(2) 108–127.

  • 16. Halbesleben J. R. B. (2006). Sources of social support and burnout: A meta-analytic test of the conservation of resources model. Journal of Applied Psychology 91(5) 1134–1145.

  • 17. Hu L. & Bentler P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling 6(1) 1–55.

  • 18. Jiménez P. Dunkl A. & Eibel K. (2013). Razvoj in vrednotenje protistresnih programov za ohranjanje oz. izboljšanje dobrega počutja zaposlenih. In S. Šarotar-Žižek S. Treven P. Jiménez & A. Potočnik (Eds.) Premagovanje stresa kot sredstvo za zagotavljanje dobrega počutja (pp. 109–116). Maribor: Univerzitetna knjižnica Maribor.

  • 19. Jiménez P. & Kallus W. (2005) Stress and recovery of social care professionals: Development of a screening version of the recovery-stress-questionnaire for work. In C. Korunka & P. Hoffmann (Eds.) Change and quality in human service work (pp. 311–323). Munich: Hampp.

  • 20. Jiménez P. Winkler B. & Dunkl A. (2013 May). Health relevant leadership dimensions. Development of a questionnaire to measure healthy leadership. Poster presented at the 16th Congress of the European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Münster.

  • 21. Kallus K. W. (in press). Introduction. In K. W. Kallus & M. Kellmann (Eds.) The recovery-stress questionnaires: User manual. Frankfurt: Pearson Assessment.

  • 22. Kanste O. Kyngäs H. & Nikkilä J. (2007). The relationship between multidimensional leadership and burnout among nursing staff. Journal of Nursing Management 15(7) 731–739.

  • 23. Kelloway K. E. & Day A. (2005). Building healthy workplaces: Where we need to be. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science 37(4) 309–312.

  • 24. Kivimäki M. Vahtera J. Elovainio M. Virtanen M. & Siegrist J. (2007). Effort-reward imbalance procedural injustice and relational injustice as psychosocial predictors of health: complementary or redundant models? Occupational and Environmental Medicine 64(10) 659–665.

  • 25. Langdridge D. (2009). Introduction to research methods and data analysis in psychology. London: Pearson Prentice Hall.

  • 26. Leiter M. P. & Maslach C. (1999). Areas of worklife: A model of the organizational context of burnout. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration 21(4) 472–489.

  • 27. Leiter M. P. Frank E. & Matheson T. J. (2009). Demands values and burnout. Relevance for physicians. Canadian Family Physician 55(12) 1224–1225.

  • 28. Maslach C. & Leiter M. P. (2008) Early predictors of job burnout and engagement. Journal of Applied Psychology 93(3) 498–512.

  • 29. Nahrgang J. D. Morgeson F. P. & Hofmann D. A. (2011). Safety at work: A meta-analytic investigation of the link between job demands job resources burnout engagement and safety outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology 96(1) 71–94.

  • 30. Nielsen K. Randall R. Yarker J. & Brenner S. (2008). The effects of transformational leadership on followers’ perceived work characteristics and psychological well-being: A longitudinal study. Work & Stress 22(1) 16–32.

  • 31. Piccolo R. F. & Colquitt J. A. (2006). Transformational leadership and job behaviors: The mediating role of core job characteristics. The Academy of Management Journal 49(2) 327–340.

  • 32. Preacher K. J. & Hayes A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods 40(3) 879–891.

  • 33. Republic of Slovenia Statistical Office. (2015). Podatkovni portal SI-STAT Aktivno prebivalstvo - letni podatki. Retrieved from

  • 34. Robbins J. M. Ford M. T. & Tetrick L. E. (2012). Perceived unfairness and employee health: A meta-analytic integration. Journal of Applied Psychology 97(2) 235–272.

  • 35. Schermelleh-Engel K. & Moosbrugger H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online 8(2) 23–74.

  • 36. Schneider B. Ehrhart M. G. & Macey W. H. (2013). Organizational climate and culture. Annual Review of Psychology 64(1) 361–388.

  • 37. Schreurs B. van Emmerik H. Notelaers G. & De Witte H. (2010). Job insecurity and employee health: The buffering potential of job control and job self-efficacy. Work & Stress 24(1) 56–72.

  • 38. Shain M. & Kramer D. M. (2004). Health promotion in the workplace: framing the concept; reviewing the evidence. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 61(7) 643–648.

  • 39. Thompson C. A. & Prottas D. J. (2005). Relationships among organizational family support job autonomy perceived control and employee well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 10(4) 100–118.

  • 40. Zakon o varnosti in zdravju pri delu/The Law on Safety and Health at Work (ZVZD-1). (2011).Uradni list. Retrieved from

Journal information
Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 275 165 7
PDF Downloads 198 134 9