Laboratory measurements show that varying the dosage sequence of air-entraining agent and co-polymer in the mix (SP added before, after or together with AEA) greatly affects air entrainment in fresh and hardened fly ash concrete. Image analysis shows a somewhat lower specific surface when SP is added together with AEA. Foam Index measurements on the same binder materials, admixtures, and dosage sequences were therefore found less useful for studying the effect of admixture combinations. Obtaining a certain air content using the experience with AEA-SP dosage was found to be an untrivial task if there is a lack of parameter control. Finally, examples of successful mixing procedure for air entrainment in a series of high-volume fly ash concrete are shown.
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