Stabilization/solidification by hydraulic binders of metal elements from landfill leachate

Open access


The objective of this work is to use stabilization/solidification (S/S) on the landfill leachates that often are heavily polluted by heavy metals and require proper treatment before discharge into the environment. The process consists of a S/S using a hydraulic binder in order to limit the solubility and mobility of the pollutants. While cement is the most used binder based on S/S values, in this study we substituted it by cement kiln dust (CKD) in two replacement ratios 25.50 and 100 %. The resulting effect on mechanical resistance and on retention of pollutants was evaluated. A metal (lead, iron and zinc) contaminated leachate from the landfill site of Sidi-Bouderham in Algeria was mixed with an amount of cement and cement kiln dust in different proportions in order to optimize our formulations. The smooth paste was obtained and a standardized test of the test specimens was analyzed for mechanical resistance after 7 and 28 d of setting. Our results show that F1P (100 % Cement) and F2P (75 % Cement + 25 % CKD) point on satisfactory mechanical strength and metal retention capacity. Our approach suggests a promising approach for remediation of polluted sites.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Adaska WS Tresouthick SW West PB (1998) Solidification and stabilization of wastes using Portland cement 2nd edition Portland Cement Association Skokie 22 p.

  • Afnor (2016) Norme française NF EN 196-1 : Méthodes d’essais des ciments - Partie 1 : détermination des résistances (Septembre 2016).

  • Al-Jabri KS Al-Saidy AH Taha R Al-Kemyani AJ (2011) Effect of using wastewater on the properties of high strength concrete. Procedia Eng. 14: 370-376.

  • Atahan HN Oktar ON Tasdemir MA (2009) Effects of water–cement ratio and curing time on the critical pore width of hardened cement paste. Constr. Build. Mater. 23: 1196-1200.

  • Balkan M Kocasoy G (2004) Industrial sludge solidification by using clinoptilolite. J. Environ. Sci. Health Part A 39: 951-960.

  • Barna R Rethy Z Tiruta-Barna L (2005) Release dynamic process identification for a cement based material in various leaching conditions. Part I. Influence of leaching conditions on the release amount. J. Environ. Manage. 74: 141-151.

  • Barna R Sanchez F Moszkowicz P Méhu J (1997) Leaching behavior of pollutants in stabilized/solidified wastes. J. Hazard. Mater. 52: 287-310.

  • Barth EF (1990) An overview of the history present status and future direction of solidification/stabilization technologies for hazardous waste treatment. J. Hazard. Mater. 24: 103-109.

  • Bediako M Kevern JT Amankwah EO (2015) Effect of curing environment on the strength properties of cement and cement extenders. Mater. Sci. Applic. 6: 33-39.

  • Belebchouche C Moussaceb K Aït-Mokhtar A (2016) Evaluation of the encapsulation of nickel chromium and lead-rich wastes in cement matrices by TCLP test. Eur. J. Environ. Civ. En. 20: 711-724.

  • Belebchouche C Moussaceb K Tahakourt A Aït-Mokhtar A (2014) Parameters controlling the release of hazardous waste (Ni2+ Pb2+ and Cr3+) solidified/stabilized by cement-CEM I. Mater. Struct. 48: 2323-2338.

  • Bhatty MSY (1984) Use of cement kiln dust in blended cements. World Cement 15(4): 131-134.

  • Bhatty MSY (1985) Use of cement kiln dust in blended cements – Alkali-aggregate reaction expansion. World Cement 16: 386-391.

  • Bhatty MSY (1986) Properties of blended cements made with Portland cement cement kiln dust fly ash and slag. In Proceedings of the International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement Communications Theme 3 Brazil 118-127.

  • Catherine FM (2003) Etude de matériaux à base de liant hydraulique contenant des polluants organiques modèles : propriétés structurales et de transfert. PhD thesis National Institute of Applied Sciences of Lyon.

  • Chen QY Tyrer M Hills CD Yang XM Carey P (2009) Immobilization of heavy metal in cement-based solidification/stabilization: A review. Waste Manage. 29: 390-403.

  • Cheng KY Bishop PL (1992) Sorption important in stabilized/solidified waste forms. Hazard. Waste Hazard. Mater. 9: 289-296.

  • Conner JR Hoeffner SL (1998) The history of stabilization/solidification technology. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Tech. 28: 325-396.

  • Cyr M Idir R Escadeillas G (2012) Use of metakaolin to stabilize sewage sludge ash and municipal solid waste incineration fly ash in cement-based materials. J. Hazard. Mater. 243: 193-203.

  • De Windt L Badreddine R (2007) Modelling of long-term dynamic leaching tests applied to solidified/stabilized waste. Waste Manage. 27: 1638-1647.

  • Glasser FP (1997) Fundamental aspects of cement solidification and stabilisation. J. Hazard. Mater. 52: 151-170.

  • Halim CE Amal R Beydoun D Scott JA Low G (2003) Evaluating the applicability of a modified toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) for the classification of cementitious wastes containing lead and cadmium. J. Hazard. Mater. 103: 125-140.

  • Halim CE Scott JA Natawardaya H Amal R Beydoun D Low G (2004) Comparison between acetic acid and landfill leachates for the leaching of Pb(II) Cd(II) As(V) and Cr(VI) from cementitious wastes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38: 3977-3983.

  • Hunce SY Akgul D Demir G Mertoglu B (2012) Solidification/stabilization of landfill leachate concentrate using different aggregate materials. Waste Manage. 32: 1394-1400.

  • Imyim A (2000) Méthodologie d’évaluation environnementale des déchets stabilises/solidifies par liants hydrauliques. PhD dissertation National Institute of Applied Sciences of Lyon.

  • Kallel A Ellouze M Trabelsi I (2017) Co-management of landfill leachate concentrate with brick waste by solidification/stabilization treatment. Arab. J. Geosci. 10: 81.

  • Katano K Takeda N Ishizeki Y Iriya K (2013) Properties and application of concrete made with sea water and un-washed sea sand. In Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on Sustainable Construction Material & Technologies Japan.

  • Malviya R Chaudhary R (2006) Factors affecting hazardous waste solidification/stabilization: A review. J. Hazard. Mater. 137: 267-276.

  • Maslehuddin M Al-Amoudi OSB Rahman MK Barry MR (2009) Properties of cement kiln dust concrete. Constr Build. Mater. 23: 2357-2361.

  • Mijno V Catalan LJJ Martin F Bollinger JC (2004) Compositional changes in cement-stabilized waste during leach tests – comparison of SEM/EDX data with predictions from geochemical speciation modelling. J. Colloid. Interface Sci. 280: 465-477.

  • Mijno V Martin F Bollinger JC Catalan LJJ (2007) Stabilization/solidification process: Comparison of synthetic sludge and volcanogenic massive sulphide tailings. Process Saf. Environ. 85: 260-264.

  • Montgomery D Sollars C Perry R (1991) Optimization of cement-based stabilization/solidification of organic-containing industrial wastes using organophilic clays. Waste Manage. Res. 9: 21-34.

  • Moussaceb K Aït-Mokhtar A Merabet D (2012) Influence of leaching conditions on the release kinetics of lead chromium and nickel from solidified/stabilized cementitious materials. Environ. Tech. 33: 2681-2690.

  • Moussaceb K Belebchouche C Aït-Mokhtar A Merabet D (2013) Evaluation of the impact of Ni Cr and Pb contained in effluents of an industrial unit by the process of stabilization/solidification using hydraulic binders. Int. J. Environ. Res. 7 : 485-494.

  • Paria S Yuet PK (2006) Solidification-stabilization of organic and inorganic contaminants using Portland cement: A literature review. Environ. Rev. 14: 217-255.

  • Qian G Cao Y Chui P Tay J (2006) Utilization of MSWI fly ash for stabilization/solidification of industrial waste sludge. J. Hazard. Mater. 129: 274-281.

  • Rodier J Legube B Merlet N (coord.) (2009) L’Analyse de l’Eau (9° édition) Dunod Paris.

  • Slack RJ Gronow JR Voulvoulis N (2005) Household hazardous waste in municipal landfills: contaminants in leachate. Sci. Total Environ. 337: 119-137.

  • Silva M Naik TR (2010) Sustainable use of resources – recycling of sewage treatment plant water in concrete. In Paper presented at the second international conference on sustainable construction materials and technologies Ancona Italy 28-30 June 2010.

  • Shi C (2004) Hydraulic cement systems for stabilization/solidification. In Spence RD Shi C (Eds.) Stabilization and solidification of hazardous radioactive and mixed wastes CRC Press U.S.A p. 49-77.

  • Taha R Al-Harthy AS Al-Jabri K (2010) Use of production and brackish water in concrete. Paper presented at the. International Engineering Conference on Hot Arid Regions (IECHAR) Al-Ahsa Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 2010.

  • Tiruta-Barna L Imyim A Barna R (2004) Long-term prediction of the leaching behavior of pollutants from solidified wastes. Advan. Environ. Res. 8: 697-711.

  • U.S.-E.P.A. (1994) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) Method 1311 Solid Waste Characterization Manual SW-848 Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste Physical/Chemical Methods. Athens Georgia USA.

  • Valls S Vàzquez E (2000) Stabilization and solidification of sewage sludges with Portland cement. Cem. Concr. Res. 30: 1671-1678.

  • Zhao H Poon CS Ling TC (2013) Properties of mortar prepared with recycled cathode ray tube funnel glass sand at different mineral admixture. Constr. Build. Mat. 40: 951-960.

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 0.68

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.173
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.288

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 29 29 29
PDF Downloads 14 14 14