Antifouling activities of extracellular polymeric substances produced by marine bacteria associated with the gastropod (Babylonia sp.)

Open access


Bacteria associated with surfaces have been frequently cited as a potential source for the isolation of bioactive metabolites. In this study, bacteria associated with marine gastropod, Babylonia sp. were isolated and screened for antibacterial activity against biofilm-forming bacteria. The antibiofilm and antifouling effect of the selected surface- associated bacterial strains were examined under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Results showed that the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the bacterial strain CML associated with gastropod species considerably reduced the adhesion of biofilm-forming bacteria on glass coupons. Besides, the antifouling coat prepared by incorporating of this EPS into polyurethane varnish prevented the settlement of biofoulers on test substratum submerged in marine waters. The functional groups present in the EPS were analyzed using FT-IR. The bacterium responsible for the production of the bioactive EPS was identified as Bacillus subtilis subsp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. More detailed characterization of the identified bioactive EPS could lead to the isolation of a novel natural antifouling product.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Almedia JR Da-Silva MC Sousa E Antunes J Pinto M Vasconcelos V Cunha I (2017) Antifouling potential of Nature inspired sulfated compounds. Sci. Rep. 7: 42424.

  • Arias P Dankere C Liu P Pilkauskas P (2003) The world banana economy: 1985-2002 FAO. Commodity studies 1 FAO Rome.

  • Armstrong E Boyd KG Burgess JG (2000) Prevention of marine biofouling using natural compounds from marine organisms. Biotechnol. Ann. Rev. 6: 221-241.

  • Azeredo J Oliveira R (2000) The role of exopolymer in the attachment of paucimobilis. Biofouling 1: 59-67.

  • Bauer AW Perry DM Kirby WMM (1959) Single disc antibiotic sensitivity testing of Staphylococci. AMA Arch. Int. Med. 104: 208-216.

  • Biswas J Ganguly J Paul AK (2015) Partial characterization of an extracellular polysaccharide produced by the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas xianhensis SUR308. Biofouling 9-10: 735-744.

  • Bowman JP (2007) Bioactive compound synthetic capacity and ecological significance of marine bacterial genus Pseudoalteromonas. Mar. Drugs. 5: 220-241.

  • Burdman S Jurkevitch E Soria-Diaz ME Gil Serrano AM Okon Y (2000) Extracellular polysaccharide composition of Azospirillum brasilense and its relation with cell aggregation. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 189: 259-264.

  • Burgess JG Jordan EM Bregu M Mearns-Spragg A Boyd KG (1999) Microbial antagonism: a neglected avenue of natural products research. J. Biotechnol. 70: 27-32.

  • Cho JY (2012) Antifouling steroids isolated from red alga epiphyte filamentous bacterium Leucothrix mucor. Fish. Sci. 78: 683-689.

  • Cho JY Kim MS (2012) Induction of antifouling diterpene production by Streptomyces cinnabarinus PK209 in coculture with marine-derived Alteromonas sp. KNS-16. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 76: 1849-1854.

  • Clare AS (1996) Marine natural product antifoulants: Status and potential. Biofouling. 9: 211-229.

  • Costerton JN Marrie TJ Cheng KJ (1985) Phenomena of bacterial adhesion. In Savage DS Flectcher MS (Eds.) Bacterial adhesion Plenum Press New York USA pp. 3-43.

  • Costerson JW Cheng KJ Geesey GG Ladd TIM Nickel JC Dasgupta M Marie TJ (1987) Bacterial biofilms in nature and disease. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 41: 435-464.

  • Danielsson A Norkrans B Bjornsson A (1977) On bacterial adhesion ± the effect of certain enzymes on adhered cells of a marine Pseudomonas sp. Bot. Mar. 20: 13-17.

  • Decho AW (2000) Microbial biofilms in an intertidal system: an overview. Cont. Shelf Res. 20: 1257-1273.

  • Dubois M Gilles KA Hamilton JK Rebers PA Smith F (1956) Colometric method for determination of sugars and related substances Anal. Chem. 28: 350-256.

  • Fenical AW (1993) Chemical studies of bacteria: developing a new resource. Chem. Rev. 93: 1673-1683.

  • Fletcher M Floodgate GD (1973) Electron Microscopic Demonstration Of Acidic Polysaccharide involved in adhesion of a marine bacterium to solid surfaces. J. Gen. Microbiol.74: 325-334.

  • Guo S Mao W Han Y Zhang X Yang C Chen Y Chen Y Xu J. Li H Qi X Xu J (2010) structural characteristic and antioxidant activities of extracellular polysaccharide produced by marine bacterium Edwardsiella tarda. Biores. Technol. 101: 4729 -4732.

  • Hellio C Yebra D (2009) Advances in marine antifouling coatings and technologies Woodhead Publishing Ltd. Cambridge UK 762 p.

  • Henrikson A Pawlik JRA (1995) A new method of assaying extracts of marine organisms for antifouling properties. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 194: 157-165.

  • Heumann D Barras C Severin A Glauser MP Tomasz. A (1994) Gram positive cell walls stimulate synthesis of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 by human monocytes. Infect. Immun. 62: 2715-2721.

  • Iyapparaj P Revathi P Ramasubburayan R Prajash S Palavesam A Immanuel G Anantharaman P Sautreau A Hellio C (2014) Antifouling and toxic properties of the bioactive extracts from the seagrasses Syringodium isoetifolium and Cymodocea serrulata. Ecotox. Environ. Safe 03: 54-60.

  • Iyer A Mody K Jha B (2005) Characterization of an extracellular polysaccharide produced by marine Enterobacter cloacae. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 43: 467-471.

  • Jain A Nishad KK Narayan B (2007) Effect of DNP on the cell surface properties of marine bacteria and its implication for adhesion to surfaces. Biofouling 23: 171-177.

  • Katsuyama Y Matsumoto J Okada T Ohtsuka Y Chen L Okado H Okamura Y (2002) Regulations of synaptotagmin gene expression during ascidian embryogenesis. Dev. Biol. 244: 293-304.

  • Kijjoa A Sawangwong P (2004) Drugs and cosmetics from the sea. Mar. Drugs. 2: 73-82.

  • Lau SCK Harden T Qian PY (2003) Induction of larval settlement in the serpulid polychaete Hydroides elegans (Haswell): Role of bacterial extracellular polymers. Biofouling 19: 197-204.

  • Ledezma OEV Méndez HIP Manjarrez LAM Cano ETQ Alvarez NM López-Luna A (2016) Characterization of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by marine Micromonospora sp. J. Chem. Pharma. Res. 8: 442-451.

  • Lowry OH Rosebrough NJ Farr AL Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193: 265-275.

  • Petronis S Berntsson K Gold J Gatenholm P (2000) Design and microstructuring of PDMS surfaces for improved marine biofouling resistance. J. Biomat. Sci. 11: 1051-1072.

  • Piehler J Brecht A Hehl K Gauglitz G (1999) Protein interactions in covalently attached dextran layers. Colloids Surf. B: Biointerfaces. 13: 325-336.

  • Punitha SMJ Viju N Sharminvini S Shanker CVS Micgel Babu M Citarasu T (2014) Antibacterial activity of bacteria associated with of gastropod. Int. J. Pure Appl. Microbiol. 7: 2879-2884.

  • Rajasree V Satheesh S Vincent SGP (2012) Antifouling activity of a marine epibiotic bacterium from the seaweed Sargassum wightii. Thalassas 28: 37-43.

  • Rajasree V Shankar CVS Satheesh S Punitha SMJ (2014) Biofilm inhibitory activity of extracellular polymeric substance produced by Exiguobacterium sp. associated with the polychaete Platynereis dumerilii. Thalassas 30: 13-19.

  • Rasmussen TL Bäckström D Heinemeier J Klitgaard- Kristensen D Knutz PC Kuijpers A Lassen S Thomsen E Troelstra SR Van Weering TCE (2002) The Faeroe - Shetland Gateway: Late Quaternary water mass exchange between the Nordic seas and the northeastern Atlantic. Mar. Geol. 188: 165-192.

  • Ruas-Madiedo P Hugenholtz J Zoon P (2002) An overview of the functionality of exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria. Int. Dairy 12: 163-171.

  • Satheesh S Soniambi A Shankar CVS Punitha SMJ (2012) Antifouling Activities of Marine Bacteria Associated with Sponge (Sigmadocia sp.). J. Ocean Univ. China. 11: 354-360.

  • Satheesh S Ba-Akdah MA Al-Sofyani AA (2016) Natural antifouling compound production by microbes associated with marine macroorganisms - A review. Elect. J. Biotechnol. 21: 26-35.

  • Shankar CVS Satheesh S Viju N Punitha SMJ (2015) Antibacterial and biofilm inhibitory activities of bacteria associated with polychaetes. J. Coast. Life. Med. 3: 495-502.

  • Simones SM Blankenship JT Weitz O Farrell DL Tamada M Fernandez-Gonzales R Zallen JA (2010) Rho- Kinase directs bazooka/Par-3 planar polarity during Drosophila axis elongation. Develop. Cell. 19: 377-388.

  • Stein T (2005) Bacillus subtilis antibiotics: structures synthesis and specific functions. Mol. Microbiol. 56: 845-857.

  • Thomas KV Brooks S (2010) The environmental fate and effects of antifouling paint biocides. Biofouling 26: 73-88.

  • Valle J Da Re S Henry N Fontaine T Balestrino D Latour- Lambert P Ghigo JM (2006) Broad spectrum biofilm inhibition by a secreted bacterial polysaccharide. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci U. S.A. 103: 12558-12563.

  • Viju N Satheesh S Vincent SGP (2013) Antibiofilm activity of coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) husk fibre extract Saudi J. Biol. Sci. 20: 85-91.

  • Viju N Anitha A Vini SS Shankar CVS Satheesh S Punitha SMJ (2014) Antibiofilm activities of extracellular polymeric substances produced by bacterial symbionts of seaweeds. Ind. J. Geo- Mar. Sci. 43: 2136-2146.

  • Viju N Satheesh S Punitha SMJ (2016) Antibiofilm and antifouling activities of extracellular polymeric substances isolated from the bacteria associated with marine gastropod Turbo sp. Oceanol. Hydrobiol. St. 45: 11-19.

  • Viju N Satheesh S Punitha SMJ (2017) Antifouling activities of antagonistic marine bacterium Pseudomonas putida Associated with an Octopus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. India Sect. B. Biol. Sci. 87: 1113-1124.

  • Vu B Chen M Crawford RJ Ivanova AP (2009) Bacterial extracellular polysaccharides involved in biofilm formation. Molecules 14: 2535-2554.

  • Xu Y He H Schultz S Liu X Fusetani N Xiong H Xiao X Qian PY (2010) Potent antifouling compounds produced by marine Streptomyces. Bioresour. Technol. 10: 1331-1336.

  • Zheng L Han X Chen H Lin W Yan LX (2005) Marine bacteria associated with marine macroorganisms: the potential antimicrobial resources. Ann. Microbiol. 55: 119-124.

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 0.68

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.173
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.288

Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 1025 901 7
PDF Downloads 237 168 6