Safflower is one of the most important oilseed crops in semi-arid regions. The soil of semi-arid areas often encounters micronutrient deficiencies. However, nutrients imbalance seems to affect the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the oil as well as plant growth. Current experiment was carried out to evaluate the impact of different application practices (soil application and foliar spray) of micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mn) on oil content, fatty acid profile and yield components of safflower under full and limited irrigations. Results showed that all of investigated traits were significantly affected by fertilizer treatment and irrigation system. The highest seed protein content was recorded for plants grown by soil application of Zn under limited irrigation condition. The highest oil content was achieved by soil application of Zn under full irrigation condition. The water deficit significantly reduced some qualitative characteristics such as oleic acid, palmitic aid, stearic acid, linoleic acid, iodine value and saponification value. The highest head number per plant, seed number per head and seed yield recorded in plants grown by soil application of Fe and Zn under full irrigation condition. Although the use of micronutrients improved qualitative characteristics in comparison with control, the best qualitative characteristics were achieved with the soil application of Zn and Fe. The elimination of micronutrient deficiencies and the balanced supply of nutrients through soil along with optimal and timely irrigation can significantly increase the efficiency of safflower production systems and improve the quality of the oil.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
AOCS (1993) Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. AOCS Press. Washington DC.
Baldini M Giovanardi R Vannozzi G (2000) Effect of different water availability on fatty acid composition of the oil in standard and high oleic sunflower hybrids. In Proceedings of 15th International Sunflower Conference Toulouse pp. A79-84.
Danieli PP Primi R Ronchi B Ruggeri R Rossini F Del Puglia S Cereti CF (2011) The potential role of spineless safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. var. inermis) as fodder crop in central Italy. Ital. J. Agron. 6: 4-9.
Distelfeld A Avni R Fischer AM (2014) Senescence nutrient remobilization and yield in wheat and barley. J. Exp. Bot. 65: 3783-3798.
Emongor V (2010) Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) the underutilized and neglected crop: A review. Asian J. Plant Sci. 9: 299-306.
Galavi M Ramroudi M Tavassoli A (2012) Effect of micronutrients foliar application on yield and seed oil content of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). Afr. J. Agric. Res. 7: 482-486.
Hamrouni I Salah HB Marzouk B (2001) Effects of water-deficit on lipids of safflower aerial parts. Phytochemistry. 58: 277-280.
Hänsch R Mendel RR (2009) Physiological functions of mineral micronutrients (Cu Zn Mn Fe Ni Mo B Cl). Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 12: 259-266.
Janmohammadi M Amanzadeh T Sabaghnia N Ion V (2016) Effect of nano-silicon foliar application on safflower growth under organic and inorganic fertilizer regimes. Bot. Lith. 22: 53-64.
Janmohammadi M Sabaghnia N Seifi A Pasandi M (2017) The impacts of nano-structured nutrients on chickpea performance under supplemental irrigation. Acta Univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendel. Brun. 3: 859-870.
Johnston AM Tanaka DL Miller PR Brandt SA Nielsen DC Lafond GP Riveland NR (2002) Oilseed crops for semiarid cropping systems in the northern Great Plains. Agron. J. 94: 231-240.
Keshavarzi A Sarmadian F (2012) Mapping of spatial distribution of soil salinity and alkalinity in a semi-arid region. Ann. Warsaw Agricult. Univ. – SGGW Land Reclam. 44: 3-14.
Lemoine R La Camera S Atanassova R Dédaldéchamp F Allario T Pourtau N Faucher M (2013) Source-to-sink transport of sugar and regulation by environmental factors. Front. Plant Sci. 4: 272.
Li QT Lu X Song QX Chen HW Wei W Tao JJ Bi YD (2017) Selection for a zinc-finger protein contributes to seed oil increase during soybean domestication. Plant Physiol. 173: 2208-2224.
Liu L Guan LL Yang YX (2016) A review of fatty acids and genetic characterization of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed oil. Am. J. Chin. Med. 2: 48-52.
Marschner H (2012) Marschner's mineral nutrition of higher plants. In Marschner H (Ed.) 2nd edition Elsevier Ltd. Amsterdam.
Mirshekari M Majnoonhoseini N Amiri R Moslehi A Zandvakili O (2013) Effects of sowing date and irrigation treatment on safflower seed quality. J. Agr. Sci. 15: 505-515.
Movahhedy-Dehnavy M Modarres-Sanavy SAM Mokhtassi-Bidgoli A (2009) Foliar application of zinc and manganese improves seed yield and quality of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) grown under water deficit stress. Ind. Crops Prod. 30: 82-92.
Nosheen A Bano A Yasmin H Keyani R Habib R Shah ST Naz R (2016) Protein quantity and quality of safflower seed improved by NP fertilizer and Rhizobacteria (Azospirillum and Azotobacter spp.). Front. Plant Sci. 7: 104.
Omidi H Tahmasebi Z Badi HAN Torabi H Miransari M (2010) Fatty acid composition of canola (Brassica napus L.) as affected by agronomical genotypic and environmental parameters. C. R. Biol. 333: 248-254.
Ortega J López-Hernandez A Garcia HS Hill CG (2004) Lipase-mediated acidolysis of fully hydrogenated soybean oil with conjugated linoleic acid. J. Food. Sci. 69: 88-96.
Peel MC Finlayson BL McMahon TA (2007) Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrol. Earth. Syst. Sci. 4: 439-473.
Ravi S Channal HT Hebsur NS Dharmatti PR (2010) Effect of sulphur zinc and iron nutrition on growth yield nutrient uptake and quality of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Karnataka J. Agric. Sci. 21: 15-24.
Reddy PP (2016) Supplemental irrigation. In Sustainable intensification of crop production Springer Singapore 253-265.
Rondanini D Savin R Hall AJ (2003) Dynamics of fruit growth and oil quality of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) exposed to brief intervals of high temperature during grain filling. Field Crops Res. 83: 79-90.
Sabaghnia N Ahadnezhad A Janmohammdi M (2015) Genetic variation in garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) germplasm as assessed by some morphological traits. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 5: 733-745.
Yadegari M (2016) Effect of micronutrients foliar application and biofertilizeres on essential oils of lemon balm. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 16: 702-715.