Chemical composition and biological activity of seed oil of amaranth varieties

Open access


The work is devoted to study of seed oil composition of amaranth varieties: Kharkov, Lera, Andijan and Helios, acclimatized in Uzbekistan. We demonstrated the possibility of using reversed-phase HPLC using a refractometric detector, which allows simultaneous determination of squalene and triacylglycerides in plant seeds and determining the authenticity of amaranth oils. Established seed oiliness ranged from 6.39 to 7.81 % of the initial mass. Amaranth oil samples contained quite large amount of unsaturated fatty acids 72.72 – 73.28 %, 1.17 % of which is omega-3-alpha-linolenic acid. The squalene content in the seeds ranged from 0.35 % to 0.55 %. It was established that the squalene content in oils obtained by extraction is greater than the one obtained by cold pressing. In the triacylglyceride composition of the investigated cold-pressed and extracted oils, no significant differences were found.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Abdurakhimov SA Makhmudov RA (2014) Analyzing and technical regulation of vegetable oils extracted by extraction method according to international standards. Scientific and Technical Journal “STANDARD” of Uzstandart Agency. 2: 28-30.

  • Berg JM Tymoczko JL Stryer L. (2002) Biochemistry 5th edition WH Freeman New York: 1050 p.

  • Bondioli P Mariani C Lanzani A Fedeli E Muller A (1993) Squalene recovery from olive oil deodorizer distillates. J. Am. Oil Chem. 70: 763-766.

  • Bruni R Medicim A Guerrini A Scalia S Poli F Muzzoli M Sacchetti G (2001) Wild Amaranthus caudatus seed oil a nutraceutical resource from Ecuadorian flora. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49: 5455-5460.

  • Brunner G Malchow T Stürken K Gottschau T (1991) Separation of tocopherols from deodorizer condensates by countercurrent extraction with carbon dioxide. J. Supercrit. Fluids. 4: 72-80.

  • Govind Rao MK Acaya KT (1968) Antioxidant activity of squalene. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 45: 296.

  • Grieveson L Ono T Sakakibara J Derrick J Dickinson J McMahon A Higson S (1997) A simplified squalene epoxidase assay based on an HPLC separation and time-dependent UV. Visible determination of squalene. Anal. Biochem. 252: 19-23.

  • Grigoriadoua D Androulaki A Psomiadoub E Tsimidou MZ (2007) Solid phase extraction in the analysis of squalene and tocopherols in olive oil. Food Chem. 105: 675-680.

  • Hagiwara T Yasuno T Funayama K Suzuki S (1998) Determination of lycopene alpha-carotene and beta-carotene in serum by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Sci. Appl. 708: 67-73.

  • Hlinková A Bednárová A Havrlentová M Šupová J Čičová I (2013) Evaluation of fatty acid composition among selected amaranth grains grown in two consecutive years. Biologia. 68: 641-650.

  • Huang ZR Lin YK Fang JY (2009) Biological and pharmacological activities of squalene and related compounds: potential uses in cosmetic dermatology. Molecules 14: 540-554.

  • Chernenko TV Glushenkova AI (1998) Composition of the triacylglycerols of Amaranthus caudatus seeds. Chem. Nat. Compd. 34: 99-100.

  • Chernenko TV Khodzhaeva MA Glushenkova AI Turakhozhaev MT (1997) Composition of the lipids and carbohydrates of the seeds of Amaranthus caudatus. Chem. Nat. Sci. 33: 624-626.

  • El Gendy ANG Tavarini S Conte Giuseppe Pistelli L Hendawy SF Omer EA Angelini LG (2018) Yield and qualitative characterisation of seeds of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. grown in central Italy. Ital. J. Agron. 13: 63-73.

  • Gamel TH Mesallam AS Damir AA Shekib LA Linssen JP (2007) Characterization of Amaranth seed oils. J. Food Lipids 14: 323-334.

  • He HP Corke H (2003) Oil and squalene in amaranthus grain and leaf. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 7913-7920.

  • Ishimov UJ Abdullayeva GT Ziyavitdinov JF Asrorov AM Ergashev NA Asrarov MI (2016) The effects of isolated fractions of red pepper Capsicum annuum L. on the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and lipid peroxidation. J. Microbiol. Biotech. Food Sci. 5: 259-262.

  • Jahaniaval F Kakuda Y Marcone MF (2000) Fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions of seed oils of five amaranthus accessions and their comparison to other oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 77: 847-852.

  • Jeleznov AB Jeleznova HB Burmakina NB Yudina RS (2009) Amaranth: the scientific foundations of introduction. Novosibirsk (Russia) Academic publishing house “Geo” 236 p.

  • Kamimura H Koga N Oguri K Yoshimura H (1992) Enhanced elimination of theophylline phenobarbital and strychnine from the bodies of rats and mice by squalene treatment. J. Pharmacobiodyn. 15: 215-221.

  • Kuntz E Kuntz HD (2008) Biochemistry and functions of the liver. In Kuntz E Kuntz HD (Eds.) Hepatology-textbook and atlas. 3rd edition Springer Medizine Verlag Wetzlar Germany p. 35-76.

  • Lehmann JW (1996) Case history of grain amaranth as an alternative crop. Cereal Foods World 41: 399-411.

  • Makeev AM Miroshnichenko LA Surovsev IS Djuvelikyan XA (1999) Regenerative and antitumor properties of amaranth oil. III International symposium new and non-traditional plants and prospects for their use. 1999. Moscow (Russia) Pushchino 100-103.

  • Martirosyan DM Miroshnichenko LA Kulakova SN Pogojeva AV Zoloedov VI (2007) Amaranth oil application for coronary heart disease and hypertension. Lipids Health Dis. 6: 1-12.

  • Spanggord RJ Sun M Lim P Ellis WY (2006) Enhancement of an analytical method for the determination of squalene in anthrax vaccine adsorbed formulations. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 42: 494-499.

  • Spanggord RJ Wu B Sun M Lim P Ellis WJ (2002) Development and application of an analytical method for the determination of squalene in formulations of anthrax vaccine adsorbed. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 29: 183-193.

  • State Standards of Russian Federation P 51483-99 (2017) Vegetable oils and animal fats. Determination by gas chromatography of constituent contents of methyl esters of total fatty acid content 763 p.

  • Sulpice JC Ferezou J (1984) Squalene isolation by HPLC and quantitative comparison by HPLC and GLC. Lipids 19: 631-635.

  • Tokhtaboev NX (1999) Prospects for complex processing of amaranth plant (Amaranthus hybridus L.) as a food source. Problems of flora and fauna of Fergana valley and their rational use. “Regional conference” materials. 1999. Andijan (Uzbekistan) 132.

  • Venskutonis PR Kraujalis P (2013) Nutritional components of amaranth seeds and vegetables: a review on composition properties and uses. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. F. 12: 381-412.

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 0.68

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.173
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.288

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 1130 1104 19
PDF Downloads 242 233 12