The (1,3)-β-D-glucan also referred to as callose is a main component of cell walls of higher plants. Many physiological processes are associated with the changes in callose deposition. Callose is synthesised by the callose synthase complex while its degradation is regulated by the hydrolytic enzymes β-1,3-glucanases. The latter one specifically degrade (1,3)-β-D-glucans. This work is aimed to study β-1,3-glucanase activities in the leaves of plants at two leaf stage in two diploids (Agilops tauschii, Triticum monococcum L.), four tetraploids (Ae. cylindrica, Ae. triuncialis, T. araraticum, T. dicoccum) and two hexaploids (T. aestivum L, T. spelta L.). The leaves were subjected to qualitative and quantitative β-1,3-glucanase activity assays. Our results showed that the total β-1,3-glucanase activities were variable and genotype dependent. No significant correlation between β-1,3-glucanase activities and ploidy level was observed. The gel activity assays revealed a single fraction of ~52 kDa Glu1 that was found in all genotypes. The Glu1 fraction corresponds to a single or two acidic Glu isoforms in dependence on genotype. However, none of the acidic Glu fractions can be assigned as a specific for di-, tetra- or hexaploid genotypes. A single basic GluF isoform was detected and found as present in all genotypes.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
CHEN Z.J: Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms for gene expression and phenotypic variation in plant polyploids. Annu. Review Plant Biol. 58 2007 377-406.
DOXEY A.C. YAISH M.W.F. MOFFATT B.A. GRIFFITH M. MCCONKEY B.J.: Functional divergence in the Arabidopsis beta-13-glucanase gene family inferred by phylogenetic reconstruction of expression states. Mol. Biol. Evol. 24 2007 1045-1055.
GREGOROVA Z. KOVACIK J. KLEJDUS B. MAGLOVSKI M. KUNA R. HAUPTVOGEL P. MATUSIKOVA I.: Drought-induced responses of physiology metabolites and PR Proteins in Triticum aestivum. J. Agr. Food Chem. 63 2015 8125-8133.
HAVRLENTOVA M. KRAIC J.: Content of beta-D-glucan in cereal grains. J. Food Nutr. Res. 45 2006 97-103.
HIGA-NISHIYAMA A. OHSATO S. BANNO S. WOO S. H. FUJIMURA M. YAMAGUCHI I. KIMURA M.: Cloning and characterization of six highly similar endo-13-β-glucanase genes in hexaploid wheat. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 44 2006 666-673.
HOJ P.B. FINCHER G.B.: Molecular evolution of plant beta-glucan endohydrolases. Plant J. 7 1995 367-379.
HRMOVA M. FINCHER G.B.: Purification and properties of 3 (1-3)-beta-dglucanase isoenzymes from young leaves of barley (Hordeum-vulgare). Biochem. J. 289 1993 453-461.
JAYARAJ J. MUTHUKRISHNAN S. LIANG G.H. VELAZHAHAN R.: Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid induce accumulation of beta-13-glucanase and thaumatin-like proteins in wheat and enhance resistance against Stagonospora nodorum. Biol. Plantarum 48 2004 425-430.
JIN W. HORNER H.T. PALMER R.G. SHOEMAKER R.C.: Analysis and mapping of gene families encoding beta-13-glucanases of soybean. Genetics 153 1999 445-452.
KONOTOP Y. MESZAROS P. SPIESS N. MISTRIKOVA V. PIRSELOVA B. LIBANTOVA J. MORAVCIKOVA J. TARAN N. HAUPTVOGEL P. MATUSIKOVA I.: Defense responses of soybean roots during exposure to cadmium excess of nitrogen supply and combinations of these stressors. Mol. Biol. Rep. 39 2012 10077-10087.
LAEMMLI U.K.: Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227 1970 680-685.
LEUBNER-METZGER G.: Functions and regulation of beta-13-glucanases during seed germination dormancy release and after-ripening. Seed Sci. Res. 13 2003 17-34.
LEVY A. ERLANGER M. ROSENTHAL M. EPEL B.L.: A plasmodesmata-associated beta-13-glucanase in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 49 2007 669-682.
LI W. FARIS J.D. MUTHUKRISHNAN S. LIU D. CHEN P. GILL B.S.: Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones of acidic chitinases and beta-13-glukanases from wheat spike induced by Fusarium graminearum. Theor. Appl. Genet. 102 2001 353-362.
MATSUOKA Y.: Evolution of polyploid Triticum wheats under cultivation: The role of domestication natural hybridization and allopolyploid speciation in their diversification. Plant Cell Physiol. 52 2011 750-764.
MILLER G.L.: Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal. Chem. 31 1959 426-428.
MORAVCIKOVA J. MATUSIKOVA I. LIBANTOVA J. BAUER M. MLYNAROVA L.: Expression of a cucumber class III chitinase and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia class I glucanase genes in transgenic potato plants. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. 79 2004 161-168.
MOROHASHI Y. MATSUSHIMA H.: Development of beta-13-glucanase activity in germinated tomato seeds. J. Exp. Bot. 51 2000 1381-1387.
PAN S.Q. YE X.S. KUC J.: A technique for detection of chitinase beta-13-glucanase and protein-patterns after a single separation using polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis or isoelectrofocusing. Phytopathology 81 1991 970-974.
PIRSELOVA B. KUNA R. LIBANTOVA J. MORVACIKOVA J. MATUSIKOVA I.: Biochemical and physiological comparison of heavy metal-triggered defense responses in the monocot maize and dicot soybean roots. Mol. Biol. Rep. 38 2011 3437-3446.
PIRSELOVA B. MATUSIKOVA I.: Callose: the plant cell wall polysaccharide with multiple biological functions. Acta Physiol. Plant. 35 2013 635-644.
ROMERO I. FERNANDEZ-CABALLERO C. GONI O. ESCRIBANO M.I. MERODIO C. SANCHEZ-BALLESTA M.T.: Functionality of a class I beta-13-glucanase from skin of table grapes berries. Plant Sci. 174 2008 641-648.
RUAN Y.L. XU S.M. WHITE R. FURBANK R.T.: Genotypic and developmental evidence for the role of plasmodesmatal regulation in cotton fiber elongation mediated by callose turnover. Plant Physiol. 136 2004 4104-4113
STINTZI A. HEITZ T. PRASAD V. WIEDEMANNMERDINOGLU S. KAUFFMANN S. GEOFFROY P. LEGRAND M. FRITIG B.: Plant pathogenesis-related proteins and their role in defense against pathogens. Biochimie 75 1993 687-706.
VAN DER WESTHUIZEN A.J. QIAN X.M. BOTHA A.M.: Beta-13-glucanases in wheat and resistance to the Russian wheat aphid. Physiol. Plant. 103 1998 125-131.
ZAVALIEV R. UEKI S. EPEL B.L. CITOVSKY V.: Biology of callose (beta-13-glucan) turnover at plasmodesmata. Protoplasma 248 2011 117-130.
ŽUR I. GOLĘBIOWSKA G. DUBAS E. GOLEMIEC A. MATUSIKOVA I. LIBANTOVA J. MORAVCIKOVA J.: β-13-glucanase and chitinase activities in winter triticales during cold hardening and subsequent infection by Microdochium nivale. Biologia 68(2) 2013 241-248.