Dvořák's Mass in D was commissioned by the Czech architect and visionary Josef Hlávka for the consecration of the chapel of his mansion in Lužany; the première of the original version of the work was given at a private service on 11 September, 1887. However, the focus of the present article is on a version of the work subsequently prepared by Dvorak, incorporating an added part for violoncello and bass, and submitted by him to the publishing house of Novello. Though it came to be overshadowed by the later orchestration of the work, it possesses virtues worth cherishing. Haig IJtidjian conducted the first modern revival of this version in Cologne on 8 July, 2014 and is currently preparing a critical edition for publication. A thorough critical investigation of all extant manuscript sources (some hitherto neglected) is seen to shed light on the composer’s thinking and to help clarify his intentions more generally.