This study gives an overview of lute and guitar tablatures in the holdings of the National Museum (at the Czech Museum of Music and the National Museum Library), and it briefly characterizes them in the form of a catalogue. Since music from the Strahov and Lobkowicz collections, which also involve a rather large set of tablatures, has been returned to its original owners in restitution, the study provides up-to-date information about where this historical material is now kept. It reflects new knowledge and discoveries (lute tablature with the shelf mark KNM Nostic gg 412). The composers presented (e.g. G. P. Foscarini, P. Mutti, N. Vallet, Ch. Mouton, P. I. Jelínek, A. Dix, M. Galilei, J. Dowland, Ch. de Lespine, J. Regnart, S. L. Jacobides, J. Ch. Beyer and many others), living and working in the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries, are primarily Italian, French, German, and Czech, and with respect to social classes, they represent practically all of the environments where playing on plucked instruments was cultivated.