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Abstract

In opened systems with liquid-phase (for example open-source bioreactors for various purposes) very significant temperature can be generated. The operation of the system can be impaired, possibly completely inhibited (too low, too high temperature values). The analytic description of the operation’s heat flow is needed to achieve the optimized operation and to block the thermodynamic inhibition. The aim is to examine the inner system opportunities and the auxiliary energy. The estimates values quantify the effects of atmospheric electromagnetic radiation on opened systems. Based on the developed model by increasing the complexity of the method, it is appropriate to describe the heat flow of opened systems and to explore the energy integration possibilities.

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