Range Detection of the Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Field Produced by Laptop’s AC Adapter

Darko Brodić 1  and Alessia Amelio 2
  • 1 University of Belgrade, Technical Faculty in Bor, Vojske Jugoslavije 12, 19210 Bor, Serbia
  • 2 DIMES University of Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci Cube 44, 87036 Rende (CS), Italy

Abstract

Human exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic field represents a risk to their health. This paper takes into consideration the level of an extremely low-frequency magnetic field between 30 and 300 Hz emitted by an AC laptop adapter. The experiment consists of testing 17 different AC adapters for laptops. During the testing, laptops are operated in a normal operating conditions as well as under heavy load. The magnetic field measurement is conducted in the area around the AC adapter. Obtained data is evaluated according to the critical level of the magnetic field proposed by safety standards. Furthermore, data is classified by a K-medians method in order to determine the critical levels of the magnetic field exposure in the nearby area of the AC adapter. Obtained classifications are evaluated according to safety standards, giving a critical analysis of magnetic field areas at risk. Due to emission of a very strong magnetic field in certain areas, a recommendation for safety use of the AC adapter is proposed.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • [1] IARC. (2002). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Non-Ionizing Radiation, Part 1: Static and Extremely Low-Frequency (ELF) Electric and Magnetic Fields. IARC Press, Volume 80.

  • [2] Advisory Group on Non-Ionising Radiation. (2001). ELF electromagnetic fields and the risk of cancer. Documents of the NRPB, 12 (1).

  • [3] Fernie, K.J., Reynolds, S.J. (2005). The effects of electromagnetic fields from power lines on avian reproductive biology and physiology: A review. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B: Critical Reviews, 8 (2), 127-140.

  • [4] World Health Organization (WHO). (2007). Extremely Low Frequency Fields: Environmental Health Criteria 238. WHO, ISBN 978-92-4-157238-5.

  • [5] Bastuji-Garin, S.R., Zittoun, R. (1990). Acute leukemia in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields. European Journal of Cancer, 26, 1119-1120.

  • [6] Harrington, J.M., McBride, D.I., Sorahan, T., Paddle, G.M., Van Tongeren, M. (1997). Occupational exposure to magnetic fields in relation to mortality from brain cancer among electricity generation and transmission workers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 54, 7-13.

  • [7] Johansen, C., Olsen, J. (1998). Mortality from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, other chronic disorders and electric shocks among utility workers. American Journal of Epidemiology, 148, 362-368.

  • [8] Sobel, E., Dunn, M., Davanipour, Z., Qian, Z., Chui, H.C. (1996). Elevated risk of Alzheimer’s disease among workers with likely electromagnetic field exposure. Neurology, 47, 1477-1481.

  • [9] Zoppetti, N., Andreuccetti, D., Bellieni, C., Bogi, A., Pinto, I. (2011). Evaluation and characterization of fetal exposures to low frequency magnetic fields generated by laptop computers. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 107 (3), 456-463.

  • [10] Bellieni, C.V., Pinto, I., Bogi, A., Zoppetti, N., Andreuccetti, D., Buonocore, G. (2012). Exposure to electromagnetic fields from laptop use of “laptop” computers. Archives of the Environmental and Occupational Health, 67 (1), 31-36.

  • [11] TCO Development AB. (2012). TCO Certified Notebooks 4.0. http://tcodevelopment.com/files/2013/04/TCO-Certified-Notebooks-4.0.pdf.

  • [12] ICNIRP. (2010). Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric and magnetic fields (1 Hz–100 kHz). Health Physics, 99 (6), 818-836.

  • [13] Calvente, I., Fernandez, M.F., Villalba, J., Ilea, N. (2010). Exposure to electromagnetic fields and its relationship with childhood leukemia: A systematic review. Science of Total Environment, 408 (16), 3062-3069.

  • [14] Ott, H.W. (2009). Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering. John Wiley & Sons.

  • [15] Koppel, T., Ahonen, M. (2013). Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile devices used for learning and working. Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika, 19 (6), 65-70.

  • [16] Lutron Electronic Ent. Co., Ltd. Lutron EMF-828 specification. www.sunwe.com.tw/lutron/EMF-828eop.pdf.

  • [18] Futuremark Corporation. 3DMark Vantage. http://www.futuremark.com/benchmarks/3dmark-vantage.

  • [19] Brodić, D. (2015). Measurement of the extremely low frequency magnetic field in the laptop neighborhood. Revista Facultad de Ingeniería, 76, 39-45.

  • [20] Bradley, P.S., Mangasarian, O.L., Street, W.N. (1997). Clustering via concave minimization. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 9 (NIPS 1996). NIPS Proceedings, Denver, CO, USA, 368-374.

  • [21] Mathews, J., Nair, M.S., Jo, L. (2012). Improved BTC algorithm for gray scale images using k-means quad clustering. In Neural Information Processing: 19th Int. Conference ICONIP 2012. Doha, Qatar, 9-17.

  • [22] Prasad, S., Kumar, P., Sinha, K.P. (2015). Grayscale to color map transformation for efficient image analysis on low processing devices. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 320, 9-18.

  • [23] Wang, H., Song, M. (2011). Ckmeans.1d.dp: Optimal k-means clustering in one dimension by dynamic programming. The R Journal, 3 (2), 29-33.

  • [24] Brodic, D., Amelio, A. (2015). Classification of the extremely low frequency magnetic field radiation measurement from the laptop computers. Measurement Science Review, 15 (4), 202-209.

  • [25] Brodic, D. (2016). Analysis of the extremely low frequency magnetic field from laptop computers. Metrology and Measurement Systems, 23 (1), 143-154.

  • [26] Brodić, D., Amelio, A. (2016). Detecting of the extremely low frequency magnetic field ranges for laptop in normal operating condition or under stress. Measurement, 91, 318-341.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search