Glass Formation and Crystallization in P2O5-Nb2O5-CaO-Na2O System

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There is a lack of studies on a wide composition range for calcium phosphate glasses containing transition elements, e.g. niobium. Addition of Nb2O5 increases mechanical and chemical strength of calcium phosphate glasses and glass ceramics.

Glass is formed in a wide range of compositions. CaO promotes batch melting. The oxidation state of niobium has important role in glass forming. Solid state reactions between P2O5 and Nb2O5 during batch melt change the oxidation state of niobium. Nb5+ in this system acts as an intermediate or conditional glass former (glass is yellow) while Nb4+ is a glass modifier (glass is blue). It is possible to obtain glass with Nb2O5 (Nb5+) content up to 70 mol%. The glass ceramics obtained by reheating powdered glass contained niobium in crystalline phases. The composition of crystalline phases depends on the phosphate amount.

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