Dynamic Signal Strength Mapping and Analysis by Means of Mobile Geographic Information System

Open access


Bluetooth beacons are becoming increasingly popular for various applications such as marketing or indoor navigation. However, designing a proper beacon installation requires knowledge of the possible sources of interference in the target environment. While theoretically beacon signal strength should decay linearly with log distance, on-site measurements usually reveal that noise from objects such as Wi-Fi networks operating in the vicinity significantly alters the expected signal range. The paper presents a novel mobile Geographic Information System for measurement, mapping and local as well as online storage of Bluetooth beacon signal strength in semireal time. For the purpose of on-site geovisual analysis of the signal, the application integrates a dedicated interpolation algorithm optimized for low-power devices. The paper discusses the performance and quality of the mapping algorithms in several different test environments.

[1] Liu, S., Chen, Y., Trappe, W., Greenstein, L.J. (2009). Non-interactive localization of cognitive radios based on dynamic signal strength mapping. 2009 Sixth International Conference on Wireless On-Demand Network Systems and Services, Snowbird, UT, 85−92.

[2] Yin, J., Yang, Q., Ni, L.M. (2008). Learning adaptive temporal radio maps for signal-strength-based location estimation. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 7(7), 869−883.

[3] Ji, Y., Biaz, S., Pandey, S., Agrawal, P. (2006). ARIADNE: a dynamic indoor signal map construction and localization system. Proc. of the 4th international conference on Mobile systems, applications and services, 151−164.

[4] de Moraes, L.F.M., Nunes, B.A.A. (2006). Calibration-free WLAN location system based on dynamic mapping of signal strength. Proc. of the 4th ACM international workshop on Mobility management and wireless access, 92−99.

[5] Shepard, D. (1968). A two-dimensional interpolation function for irregularly-spaced data. Proc. of the 1968 23rd ACM national conference, 517−524.

[6] Matheron, G. (1963). Principles of geostatistics. Economic Geology, 58(8), 1246-1266.

[7] Connelly, K., Liu, Y., Bulwinkle, D., Miller, A., Bobbitt, I. (2005). A toolkit for automatically constructing outdoor radio maps. International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05)-Volume II, 248−253.

[8] Phillips, C., Ton, M., Sicker, D., Grunwald, D. (2012). Practical radio environment mapping with geostatistics. 2012 IEEE International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, Bellevue, WA, 422−433.

[9] Wielgosz, P., Grejner-Brzezinska, D., Kashani, I. (2003). Regional ionosphere mapping with kriging and multiquadric methods. Journal of Global Positioning Systems, 1(4), 48−55.

[10] Lee, H. K., Li, B., Rizos, C. (2005). Implementation procedure of wireless signal map matching for locationbased services. Proc. of the Fifth IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology, 429−434.

[11] Kerry, K.E., Hawick, K.A. (1998). Kriging interpolation on high-performance computers. International Conference on High-Performance Computing and Networking, 429−438.

[12] Murphy, R.R., Curriero, F.C., Ball, W.P. (2009). Comparison of spatial interpolation methods for wate quality evaluation in the Chesapeake Bay. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 136(2), 160−171.

[13] Ye, S.J., Zhu, D.H., Yao, X.C., Zhang, X., Li, L. (2016). Developing a mobile GIS-based component tocollect field data. 2016 Fifth International Conference on Agro-Geoinformatics (Agro-Geoinformatics), Tianjin, 1−6.

[14] Han, W., Hu, Y., Zhang, J., Liu, Q. (2015). Mobile Data Acquisition and Management System Design Based on GIS and GPRS. Metallurgical and Mining Industry, 2, 243−249.

[15] Moszynski, M., Kulawiak, M., Chybicki, A., Bruniecki, K., Bieliński, T., Łubniewski, Z., Stepnowski, A.(2015). Innovative Web-Based Geographic Information System for Municipal Areas and Coastal Zone Security and Threat Monitoring Using EO Satellite Data. Marine Geodesy, 38(3), 203−224.

[16] Kulawiak, M., Kulawiak, M. (2017). Application of Web-GIS for Dissemination and 3D Visualization of Large-Volume LiDAR Data. The Rise of Big Spatial Data, Springer International Publishing, 1−12.

[17] Bluetooth Special Interest Group. Specification of the Bluetooth® System, version 4.2. 2014. https://www.bluetooth.org/DocMan/handlers/DownloadDoc.ashx?doc_id=286439 (Nov. 2016).

[18] Gomez, C., Oller, J., Paradells, J. (2012). Overview and evaluation of Bluetooth low energy: An emerging low-power wireless technology. Sensors, 12(9), 11734−11753.

[19] Townsend, K., Cufí, C., Davidson, R. (2014). Getting started with Bluetooth low energy: tools and techniques for low-power networking. O’Reilly Media, Inc.

[20] Mackensen, E., Lai, M., Wendt, T.M. (2012). Performance analysis of an Bluetooth Low Energy sensor system. 2012 IEEE 1st International Symposium on Wireless Systems (IDAACS-SWS), Offenburg, 62−66.

[21] Getting Started with iBeacon. (2014). Apple Inc. https://developer.apple.com/ibeacon/Getting-Started-ithiBeacon.pdf (Nov. 2016).

[22] iBeacon − Frequently Asked Questions. (2014). Cisco Inc. http://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/solutions/collateral/enterprise-networks/connected-mobile-experiences/ibeacon_faq.pdf (Nov. 2016).

[23] Eddystone protocol specification. (2016). https://github.com/google/eddystone/blob/master/protocolspecification.md (Nov. 2016).

[24] Moszynski, M., Chybicki, A., Kulawiak, M., Lubniewski, Z. (2013). A novel method for archiving multibeam sonar data with emphasis on efficient record size reduction and storage. Polish Maritime Research, 20(1), 77−86.

[25] Kulawiak, M. (2016). Operational algae bloom detection in the Baltic Sea using GIS and AVHRR data. Baltica, 29(1), 3−18.

[26] www.convertigo.com (Apr. 2017).

[27] openlayers.org (Apr. 2017).

[28] Andrienko, G., Andrienko, N., Jankowski, P., Keim, D., Kraak, M. J., MacEachren, A., Wrobel, S. (2007). Geovisual analytics for spatial decision support: Setting the research agenda. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 21(8), 839−857.

[29] Tobler, W. (1970) A computer movie simulating urban growth in the Detroit region. Economic Geography, 46(2), pp. 234−240.

[30] Bär, M. www.geonet.ch (Apr. 2017).

[31] Reed, P.M., Ellsworth, T.R., Minsker, B.S. (2004). Spatial interpolation methods for nonstationary plume data. Ground Water, 42(2), 190−202.

[32] Murphy, R.R., Curriero, F.C., Ball, W.P. (2009). Comparison of spatial interpolation methods for waterquality evaluation in the Chesapeake Bay. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 136(2), 160−171.

[33] Bluetooth Special Interest Group. Specification of the Bluetooth® System, version 1.0. 1999. http://ece.wpi.edu/analog/resources/bluetooth_a.pdf (Nov. 2016).

Metrology and Measurement Systems

The Journal of Committee on Metrology and Scientific Instrumentation of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.598

CiteScore 2016: 1.58

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.460
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 1.228


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 166 166 23
PDF Downloads 65 65 10