Measurements of Concentration differences between Liquid Mixtures using Digital Holographic Interferometry

Open access

Abstract

We present an alternative method to detect and measure the concentration changes in liquid solutions. The method uses Digital Holographic Interferometry (DHI) and is based on measuring refractive index variations. The first hologram is recorded when a wavefront from light comes across an ordinary cylindrical glass container filled with a liquid solution. The second hologram is recorded after slight changing the liquid’s concentration. Differences in phase obtained from the correlation of the first hologram with the second one provide information about the refractive index variation, which is directly related to the changes in physical properties related to the concentration. The method can be used − with high sensitivity, accuracy, and speed − either to detect adulterations or to measure a slight change of concentration in the order of 0.001 moles which is equivalent to a difference of 0.003 g of sodium chloride in solutions. The method also enables to measure and calculate the phase difference among each pixel of two samples. This makes it possible to generate a global measurement of the phase difference of the entire sensed region.

[1] Cracolice, M.S. (2016). Basics of Introductory Chemistry with Math Review. Montana: Brooks/Cole.

[2] Henrickson, C. (2010). CliffsNotes Chemistry Practice Pack. Ney Jersey: J. Wiley & Sons.

[3] Hecht, E. (2002). Optics. 4th ed. San Francisco: Addison-Wesley.

[4] Kress-Rogers, E., Brimelow, C.J.B. (2001). Instrumentation and Sensors for the Food Industry. 2nd ed. Abington: Woodhead Pubishing Limited.

[5] Chandra, B., Bhaiya, S. (1983). A simple, accurate alternative to the minimum deviation method of determining the refractive index of liquids. Am. J. Phys., 51(2), 160−161.

[6] Grange, B., Stevenson, W.H., Viskanta, R. (1976). Refractive index of liquid solutions at low temperatures: an accurate measurement. Appl. Opt., 15(4), 858−859.

[7] Edmiston, M.D. (1986). Measuring refractive indices. Phys. Teach., 24(3), 160−163.

[8] Shenoy, M.R.S., Thyagarajan, K. (1990). Simple prism coupling technique to measure the refractive index of a liquid and its variation with temperature. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 61(3), 1010−1013.

[9] Fan, J.P.L.C-H. (1998). Precision laser-based concentration and refractive index measurement of liquids. Microscale Thermophysical Engineering, 2(4), 261−272.

[10] Nemoto, S. (1992). Measurement of the refractive index of liquid using laser beam displacement. Appl. Opt., 31(31), 6690−6694.

[11] Moreels, E., De, Greef C., Finsy, R. (1984). Laser light refractometer. Appl. Opt., 23(17), 3010−3013.

[12] Toker, G.R. (2012). Holographic interferometry: A Mach-Zehnder Approach. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis Group.

[13] Colombani, J., Bert, J. (2007). Holographic interferometry for the study of liquids. J. Mol. Liq., 134(1), 8−14.

[14] Kreis, T. (2005). Handbook of holographic interferometry: Optical and Digital Methods. Klagenfurter: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.KGaA.

[15] Goldstein, R.J. (1996). Fluid mechanics measurements. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis Group.

[16] Hossain, M.M., Mehta, D.S., Shakher, C. (2006). Refractive index determination: an application of lensless fourier digital holography. Opt. Eng., 45(10), 106203−106203.

[17] Zhang, Y., Zhao, J., Di J., Jiang, H., Wang, Q., Wang, J., Guo, Y., Yin, D. (2012). Real-time monitoring of the solution concentration variation during the crystallization process of protein-lysozyme by using digital holographic interferometry. Opt. Express, 20(16), 18415−18421.

[18] Zhao, J., Zhang, Y., Jiang, H., Di, J. (2013). Dynamic measurement for the solution concentration variation using digital holographic interferometry and discussion for the measuring accuracy. Proc. icOPEN2013, Singapore, Singapure, 87690D−87690D.

[19] Takeda, M., Ina, H. Kobayashi, S. (1982). Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry. Jos. A., 72(1), 156−160.

[20] Haynes. W.M. (2015). Concentrative properties of aqueous solutions: density, refractive index, freezing point depression, and viscosity 96th ed., Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis Group.

[21] Saucedo, A.T., Mendoza, F., De la Torre-Ibarra M., Pedrini, G., Osten, W. (2006). Endoscopic pulsed digital holography for 3D measurements. Opt. Express, 14(4), 1468−1475.

Metrology and Measurement Systems

The Journal of Committee on Metrology and Scientific Instrumentation of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.598

CiteScore 2016: 1.58

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.460
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 1.228

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 51 51 23
PDF Downloads 10 10 6