Among the full-field optical measurement methods, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is one of the techniques which has been given particular attention. Technically, the DIC technique refers to a non-contact strain measurement method that mathematically compares the grey intensity changes of the images captured at two different states: before and after deformation. The measurement can be performed by numerically calculating the displacement of speckles which are deposited on the top of object’s surface. In this paper, the Two-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation (2D-DIC) is presented and its fundamental concepts are discussed. Next, the development of the 2D-DIC algorithms in the past 33 years is reviewed systematically. The improvement of 2DDIC algorithms is presented with respect to two distinct aspects: their computation efficiency and measurement accuracy. Furthermore, analysis of the 2D-DIC accuracy is included, followed by a review of the DIC applications for two-dimensional measurements.
 Peters, W.H., Ranson, W.F. (1982). Digital imaging techniques in experimental stress analysis. Optics Eng., 21(3), 427−342.
 Sutton, M.A., Cheng, M.Q., Peters, W.H., Chao, Y.J., McNeill, S.R. (1986). Application of an optimized digital correlation method to planar deformation analysis. Image Vis. Comput., 4(3), 143−150.
 Hovis, G.L. (1989). Centroidal tracking algorithm for deformation measurements using gray scale digital images. Ph.D. dissertation. University of South Carolina, USA.
 Glover, C., Jones, H. (1994). Stress, strain and deformation in solids. Conservation Principles of Continuous Media. Texas: McGraw-Hill.
 Khoo, S.W., Karuppanan, S., Abdul Latif, M.R.B. (2013). Development of an optical strain measurement method using digital image correlation. Asian J. of Scientific Research, 6(3), 411−422.
 Chen, D.J., Chiang, F.P., Tan, Y.S., Don, H.S. (1993). Digital speckle displacement measurement using a complex spectrum method. Applied Optics, 32(11), 1839−1849.
 Vendroux, G., Knauss, W.G. (1998). Submicron deformation field measurements: Part 2. Improved digital image correlation. Experimental Mechanics, 38(2), 86−92.
 Hung, P.C., Voloshin, A.S. (2003). In-plane strain measurement by digital image correlation. J. of the Brazilian Soc. of Mech. Sci. and Eng., 25(3), 215−221.
 Zhang, Z.F., Kang, Y.L., Wang, H.W., Qin, Q.H., Qiu, Y., Li, X.Q. (2006). A novel coarse-fine search scheme for digital image correlation method. Measurement, 39(8), 710−718.
 Paepegem, W.V., Shulev, A.A., Roussev, I.R., Pauw, S.D., Degrieck, J., Sainov, V.C. (2009). Study of the deformation characteristics of window security film by digital image correlation techniques. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 47(3−4), 390−397.
 Pan, B. (2009). Reliability-guided digital image correlation for image deformation measurement. Applied Optics, 48(8), 1535−1542.
 Pan, B., Li, K. (2011). A fast digital image correlation method for deformation measurement. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 49(7), 841−847.
 Pan, B., Li, K., Tong, W. (2013). Fast, robust and accurate digital image correlation calculation without redundant computations. Experimental Mechanics, 53(7), 1277−1289.
 Zhou, Y.H., Chen, Y.Q. (2012). Propagation function for accurate initialization and efficiency enhancement of digital image correlation. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 50(12), 1789−1797.
 Pan, B., Wu, D.F., Yong, X. (2012). Incremental calculation for large deformation measurement using reliability-guided digital image correlation. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 50(4), 586−592.
 Guo, X., Liang, J., Xiao, Z.Z., Cao, B.B. (2014). Digital image correlation for large deformation applied in Ti alloy compression and tension test. Optik, 125(18), 5316−5322.
 Jiang, L.B., Xie, H.M., Pan, B. (2015). Speeding up digital image correlation computation using the integral image technique. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 65, 117−122.
 Mathworks, Integral Image. (2012). http://www.mathworks.com/help/vision/ref/integralimage.html
 Shao, X.X., Dai, X.J., He, X.Y. (2015). Noise robustness and parallel computation of the inverse compositional gauss-newton algorithm in digital image correlation. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 71, 9−19.
 Meng, L.B., Jin, G.C., Yao, X.F. (2007). Application of iteration and finite element smoothing technique for displacement and strain measurement of digital speckle correlation. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 45(1), 57−63.
 Cofaru, C., Philips, W., Paepegem, W.V. (2010). Improved Newton-Raphson digital image correlation method for full-field displacement and strain calculation. J. of Applied Optics, 49(33), 6472−6484.
 Cofaru, C., Philips, W., Paepegem, W.V. (2012). A novel speckle pattern-Adaptive digital image correlation approach with robust strain calculation. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 50(2), 187−198.
 Pan, B. (2013). Bias error reduction of digital image correlation using Gaussian pre-filtering. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 51(10), 1161−1167.
 Gonzalez, R.C., Woods, R.E., Eddins, S.L. (2004). Frequency domain processing. Digital Image Processing using MATLAB, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
 Zhou, Y.H., Sun, C., Chen, J.B. (2014). Adaptive subset offset for systematic error reduction in incremental digital image correlation. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 55, 5−11.
 Yuan, Y., Huang, J.Y., Fang, J., Yuan, F., Xiong, C.Y. (2015). A self-adaptive sampling digital image correlation algorithm for accurate displacement measurement. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 65, 57−63.
 Mazzoleni, P., Matta, F., Zappa, E., Sutton, M.A., Cigada, A. (2015). Gaussian pre-filtering for uncertainty minimization in DIC using numerical-designed speckle patterns. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 66, 19−33.
 Sutton, M.A., McNeill, S.R., Jang, J., Babai, M. (1988). Effects of subpixel image restoration on digital correlation error estimates. Optics Eng., 27(10), 870−877.
 Schreier, H.W., Braasch, J.R., Sutton, M.A. (2000). Systematic errors in digital image correlation caused by intensity interpolation. Optics Eng., 39(11), 2915−2921.
 Schreier, H.W., Sutton, M.A. (2002). Systematic errors in digital image correlation due to undermatched subset shape functions. Experimental Mechanics, 42(3), 303−310.
 Wang, C.B., Deng, J.M., Ateshian, G.A., Hung, T. (2002). An automated approach for direct measurement of two-dimensional strain distributions within articular cartilage under unconfined compression. J. of Biomechanical Eng., 124(5), 557−567.
 Zhang, J., Jin, G.C., Ma, S.P., Meng, L.B. (2003). Application of an improved subpixel registration algorithm on digital speckle correlation measurement. Optics and Laser Tech., 35(7), 533−542.
 Lecompte, D., Smits, A., Bossuyt, S., Sol, H., Vantomme, J., Van Hemelrijck, D., Habraken, A.M. (2006). Quality assessment of speckle patterns for DIC. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 44(11), 1132−1145.
 Sun, Y.F., Pang, H.L. (2007). Study of optimal subset size in digital image correlation of speckle pattern images. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 45(9), 967−974.
 Haddadi, H., Belhabib, S. (2008). Use of rigid-body motion for the investigation and estimation of the measurement errors related to DIC technique. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 46(2), 185−196.
 Sutton, M.A., Yan, J.H., Tiwari, V., Scheier, H.W., Orteu, J.J. (2008). The effect of out-of-plane motion on 2D and 3D digital image correlation measurements. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 46(10), 746−757.
 Jerabek, M., Major, Z., Lang, R.W. (2010). Strain determination of polymeric materials using digital image correlation. Polymer Testing, 29(3), 407−416.
 Liu, X.Y., Tan, Q.C., Xiong, L., Liu, G.D., Liu, J.Y., Yang, X., Wang, C.Y. (2012). Performance of iterative gradient-based algorithms with different intensity change models in digital image correlation. Optics and Laser Tech., 44(4), 1060−1067.
 Crammond, G., Boyd, S.W., Barton, J.M.D. (2013). Speckle pattern quality assessment for digital image correlation. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 51(12), 1368−1378.
 Hoult, N.A., Take, W.A., Lee, C., Dutton, M. (2013). Experimental accuracy of two-dimensional strain measurement using digital image correlation. Eng. Structures, 46, 718−726.
 Pan, B., Yu, L.P., Wu, D.F., Tang, L.Q. (2013). Systematic errors in two-dimensional digital image correlation due to lens distortion. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 51(2), 140−147.
 Dufour, J.E., Hild, F., Roux, S. (2014). Integrated digital image correlation for the evaluation and correction of optical distortions. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 56, 121−133.
 Zappa, E., Mazzoleni, P., Matinmanesh, A. (2014). Uncertainty assessment of digital image correlation method in dynamic applications. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 56, 140−151.
 Zappa, E., Matinmanesh, A., Mazzoleni, P. (2014). Evaluation and improvement of digital image correlation uncertainty in dynamics conditions. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 59, 82−92.
 McNeill, S.R., Sutton, M.A., Miao, Z., Ma, J. (1997). Measurement of surface profile using digital image correlation. Experimental Mechanics, 37(1), 13−20.
 Wang, Y., Cuitino, A.M. (2002). Full-field measurements of heterogeneous deformation patterns on polymeric foams using digital image correlation. Int. J. of Solids and Structures, 39(13−14), 3777−3796.
 Zhang, J., Cai, Y.X., Ye, W.J., Yu, T.X. (2011). On the use of the digital image correlation method for heterogeneous deformation of porous solid. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 49(2), 200−209.
 Fayyad, T.M., Lees, J.M. (2014). Application of digital image correlation to reinforced concrete fracture. Procedia Materials Science, 3, 1585−1590.
 Wattrisse, B., Chrysochoos, A., Muracciole, J.M., Nemoz-Gaillard, M. (2000). Analysis of strain localization during tensile tests by digital image correlation. Experimental Mechanics, 41(1), 29−39.
 Savic, V., Hector, L.G., Fekete, J.R. (2008). Digital image correlation study of plastic deformation and fracture in fully martensitic steels. Experimental Mechanics, 50(1), 99−110.
 Wang, Z.Y., Li, H.Q., Tong, J.W., Shen, M., Aymerich, F., Priolo, P. (2008). Dual magnification digital image correlation based strain measurement in CFRP Laminates with open hole. Composites Sci. and Tech., 68(9), 1975−1980.
 Yang, G., Cai, Z.X., Zhang, X.C., Fu, D.H. (2015). An experimental investigation on the damage of granite under uniaxial tension by using a digital image correlation method. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 73, 46−52.
 McNeill, S.R., Peters, W.H., Sutton, M.A. (1987). Estimation of stress intensity factor by digital image correlation. Eng. Fracture Mechanics, 28(1), 101−112.
 Abanto-Bueno, J., Lambros, J. (2002). Investigation of crack growth in functionally graded materials using digital image correlation. Eng. Fracture Mechanics, 69(14−16), 1695−1711.
 Roux, S., Hild, F. (2006). Stress intensity factor measurements from digital image correlation: postprocessing and integrated approaches. Int. J. of Fracture, 140(1−4), 141−157.
 Lopez-Crespo, P., Shterenlikht, A., Patterson, E.A., Yates, J.R., Withers, P.J. (2008). The stress intensity of mixed mode cracks determined by digital image correlation. J. of Strain Analysis, 43(8), 769−780.
 Kanchanomai, C., Yamamoto, S., Miyashita, Y., Mutoh, Y., McEvily, A.J. (2002). Low cycle fatigue test for solders using non-contact digital image measurement system. Int. J. of Fatigue, 24, 57−67.
 Tao, G., Xia, Z.H. (2005). A non-contact real-time strain measurement and control system for multiaxial cyclic/fatigue tests of polymer materials by DIC method. Polymer Testing, 24(7), 844−855.
 Risbet, M., Feissel, P., Roland, T., Brancherie, D., Roelandt, J.M. (2010). Digital image correlation technique: application to early fatigue damage detection in stainless steel. Procedia Eng., 2(1), 2219−2227.
 Poncelet, M., Barbier, G., Raka, B., Courtin, S., Desmorat, R., Le-Roux, J.C., Vincent, L. (2010). Biaxial high cycle fatigue of a type 304L stainless steel: cyclic strains and crack initiation detection by digital image correlation. European J. of Mechanics A/Solids, 29(5), 810−825.
 Yusof, F., Lopez-Crespo, P., Withers, P.J. (2013). Effect of overload on crack closure in thick and thin specimens via digital image correlation. Int. J. of Fatigue, 56, 17−24.
 Mathieu, F., Hild, F., Roux, S. (2013). Image-based identification procedure of a crack propagation law. Eng. Fracture Mechanics, 103, 48−59.
 Srilakshmi, R., Ramji, M., Chinthapenta, V. (2015). Fatigue crack growth study of CFRP patch repaired Al 2014-T6 panel having an inclined center crack using FEA and DIC. Eng. Fracture Mechanics, 134, 182−201.
 Roux-Langlois, C., Gravouil, A., Baietto, M.C., Rethore, J., Mathieu, F., Hild, F., Roux, S. (2015). DIC identification and X-FEM simulation of fatigue crack growth based on the Williams’ series. Int. J. of Solids and Structures, 53, 38−47.
 Zhang, S.Q., Mao, S.S., Arola, D., Zhang, D.S. (2014). Characterization of the strain life fatigue properties of thin sheet metal using an optical extensometer. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 60, 44−48.
 Lopez-Crespo, P., Moreno, B., Lopez-Moreno, A., Zapatero, J. (2015). Characterization of crack-tip fields in biaxial fatigue based on high-magnification image correlation and electro-spray technique. Int. J. of Fatigue, 71, 17−25.
 Hild, F., Roux, S. (2006). Digital image correlation: From displacement measurement to identification of elastic properties. Strain, 42(2), 69−80.
 Sutton, M.A., Chao, Y.J. (1988). Measurement of strains in a paper tensile specimen using computer vision and digital image correlation: Part 1 Data acquisition and image analysis system. Tappi J., 70(3), 153−155.
 Choi, D., Thorpe, J.L., Hanna, R.B. (1991). Image analysis to measure strain in wood and paper. Wood Sci. and Tech., 25(4), 251−262.
 Huang, Y.H., Liu, L., Sham, F.C., Chan, Y.S., Ng, S.P. (2010). Optical strain gauge vs. traditional strain gauges for concrete elasticity modulus determination. Optics, 121(18), 1635−1641.
 Sanchez-Arevalo, F.M., Garcia-Fernandez, T., Pulos, G., Villagran-Muniz, M. (2009). Use of digital speckle pattern correlation for strain measurements in a CuAlBe shape memory alloy. Materials Characterization, 60(8), 775−782.
 Tung, S.H., Shih, M.H., Kuo, J.C. (2010). Application of digital image correlation for anisotropic plastic deformation during tension testing. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 48(5), 636−641.
 Rethore, J., Roux, S., Hild, F. (2007). From pictures to extended finite elements: extended digital image correlation (X-DIC). C. R. Mecanique, 335(3), 131−137.
 Ferreira, M.D.C., Venturini, W.S., Hild, F. (2011). On the analysis of notched concrete beams: From measurement with digital image correlation to identification with boundary element method of a cohesive model. Eng. Fracture Mechanics, 78(1), 71−84.
 Wang, W.Z., Mottershead, J.E., Sebastian, C.M., Patterson, E.A. (2011). Shape features and finite element model updating from full-field strain data. Int. J. of Solids and Structures, 48(11−12), 1644−1657.
 Sozen, S., Guler, M. (2011). Determination of displacement distributions in bolted steel tension elements using digital image techniques. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 49(12), 1428−1435.
 Roux, S., Hild, F., Leclerc, H. (2012). Mechanical assistance to DIC. Procedia IUTAM, 4, 159−168.
 Deb, D., Bhattacharjee, S. (2015). Extended digital image correlation method for analysis of discrete discontinuity. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 74, 59−66.
 Leclerc, H., Perie, J.N., Roux, S., Hild, F. (2009). Integrated digital image correlation for the identification of mechanical properties. Computer Vision/Computer Graphics Collaboration Techniques, 5496, 161−171.
 Dong, Y.L., Kakisawa, H., Kagawa, Y. (2015). Development of microscale pattern for digital image correlation up to 1400°C. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 68, 7−15.
 Lyons, J.S., Liu, J., Sutton, M.A. (1996). High-temperature deformation measurements using digital image correlation. Experimental Mechanics, 36(1), 64−70.
 Grant, B.M.B., Stone, H.J., Withers, P.J., Preuss, M. (2009). High-temperature strain field measurement using digital image correlation. J. of Strain Analysis, 44(4), 263−271.
 Pan, B., Wu, D.F., Xia, Y. (2010). High-temperature deformation field measurement by combining transient aerodynamic heating simulation system and reliability-guided digital image correlation. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 48(9), 841−848.
 Wu, W., Peters, W.H., Hammer, M.E. (1987). Basic mechanical properties of retina in simple elongation J. of Biomechanical Eng., 109(1), 65−67.
 Hjortdal, J., Jensen, P.K. (1995). In vitro measurement of corneal strain, thickness, and curvature using digital image correlation. Acta Ophthalmol Scandinavica, 73(1), 5−11.
 Winder, R.J., Morrow, P.J., McRitchie, I.N., Bailie, J.R., Hart, P.M. (2009). Algorithms for digital image processing in diabetic retinopathy. Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, 33(8), 608−622.
 Lee, J.J., Shinozuka, M. (2006). Real time displacement measurement of a flexible bridge using digital image processing techniques. Experimental Mechanics, 46(1), 105−114.
 Reu, P.L., Miller, T.J. (2008). The application of high-speed digital image correlation. J. of Strain Analysis, 43(8), 673−688.
 Xu, X., Wang, K.F., Gu, G.Q. (2013). An improved method for shape measurement using two-dimensional digital image correlation. Optics, 124(20), 4097−4099.
 Sun, Z.L., Lyons, J.S., McNeill, S.R. (1997). Measuring microscopic deformations with digital image correlation. Optics and Lasers in Eng., 27(4), 409−428.
 Vendroux, G., Knauss, W.G. (1998). Submicron deformation field measurements: Part I Developing a digital scanning tunnelling microscope. Experimental Mechanics, 38(1), 18−23.
 Vendroux, G., Schmidt, N., Knauss, W.G. (1998). Submicron deformation field measurements: Part III Demonstration of deformation determinations. Experimental Mechanics, 38(3), 154−160.
 Sutton, M.A., Li, N., Garcia, D., Cornille, N., Orteu, J.J., McNeill, S.R., Schreier, H.W., Li, X.D. (2006). Metrology in a scanning electron microscope: theoretical developments and experimental validation. Measurement Sci. and Tech., 17(10), 2613−2622.
 Jin, H., Lu, W.Y., Korellis, J. (2008). Micro-scale deformation measurement using the digital image correlation technique and scanning electron microscope imaging. J. of Strain Analysis, 43(8), 719−728.
 Ya’akobovitz, A., Krylov, S., Hanein, Y. (2010). Nanoscale displacement measurement of electrostatically actuated micro-devices using optical microscopy and DIC. Sensors and Actuators A:Physical, 162(1), 1−7.