Simultaneity Analysis In A Wireless Sensor Network

Open access


An original wireless sensor network for vibration measurements was designed. Its primary purpose is modal analysis of vibrations of large structures. A number of experiments have been performed to evaluate the system, with special emphasis on the influence of different effects on simultaneity of data acquired from remote nodes, which is essential for modal analysis. One of the issues is that quartz crystal oscillators, which provide time reading on the devices, are optimized for use in the room temperature and exhibit significant frequency variations if operated outside the 20–30°C range. Although much research was performed to optimize algorithms of synchronization in wireless networks, the subject of temperature fluctuations was not investigated and discussed in proportion to its significance. This paper describes methods used to evaluate data simultaneity and some algorithms suitable for its improvement in small to intermediate size ad-hoc wireless sensor networks exposed to varying temperatures often present in on-site civil engineering measurements.

[1] Karbhari, V.M., Ansari, F. (2009). Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructure Systems. Woodhead Publishing, Ltd.

[2] Malović, M., Brajović, L., Mišković, Z., Todorović, G. (2013). Vibration measurements using a wireless sensors network. Technics, 68, 19–26.

[3] Mahalakshmi, M. (2012). 8051 Microcontroller Architecture, Programming and Application. Laxmi Publications.

[4] He, L.M. (2009). Time synchronization for wireless sensor networks. Proc. of the 10th Int. Conf. on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing. Daegu, Korea, 438–443.

[5] Grzelak, S., Kowalski, M., Czoków, J., Zieliński, M. (2014). High resolution time-interval measurement systems applied to flow measurement. Metrol. Meas. Syst., 21(1), 77–84.

[6] Vig, J.R., Ballato, A. (1999). Frequency control devices. Thurston, R.N., Pierce, A.D., Papadakis, E. (eds.). Physical Acoustics 24: Ultrasonic Instruments and Devices II. London, Academic Press, 209–273.

[7] Zhou, H., Nicholls, C., Kunz, T., Schwartz, H. (2008). Frequency accuracy & stability dependencies of crystal oscillators. Carleton University, Systems and Computer Engineering, Technical Report SCE-08-12.

[8] Yoon, S., Veerarittiphan, C., Sichitiu, M.L. (2007). Tiny-sync: Tight time synchronization for wireless sensor networks. ACM Trans. Sens. Netw., 3(2), 1–34.

[9] Ganeriwal, S., Kumar, R., Srivastava, M.B. (2003). Timing-sync protocol for sensor networks. Proc. of the 1st Int. Conf. on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, ACM. Los Angeles, CA, 138–149.

[10] Gelyan, S.N., Eghbali, A.N., Roustapoor, L., Abadi, S.A.Y.F., Dehghan, M. (2007). SLTP: Scalable lightweight time synchronization protocol for wireless sensor network. Zhang, H., Olariu, S., Cao, J. (eds.). Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor Networks. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 536–547.

[11] Dai, H., Han, R., (2004). TSync: a lightweight bidirectional time synchronization service for wireless sensor networks. ACM SIGMOBILE Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev., 8(1), 125–139.

[12] Gheorghe, L., Rughinis, R., Tapus, N. (2010). Fault-tolerant flooding time synchronization protocol for wireless sensor networks. Proc. of the 6th Int. Conf. on Networking and Services (ICNS), IEEE. Cancun, Mexico, 143–149.

[13] Kusý, B. (2007). Spatiotemporal Coordination in Wireless Sensor Networks. Ph.D. Thesis. Vanderbilt University.

[14] Lenzen, C., Sommer, P., Wattenhofer, R. (2009). Optimal clock synchronization in networks. Proc. of the 7th Conf. on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems. Berkeley, CA, 225–238.

[15] Sommer, P., Wattenhofer, R. (2009). Gradient clock synchronization in wireless sensor networks. Proc. of the 8th ACM/IEEE Int. Conf. on Information Processing in Sensor Networks. San Francisco, CA, 37–48.

[16] Elson, J. (2003). Time Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks. Ph.D. Thesis. University of California.

[17] Sivrikaya, F., Yener, B., (2009). Time synchronization. Zheng, J., Jamalipour, A. (eds.). Wireless Sensor Networks: A Networking Perspective. Hoboken, John Wiley & Sons, 285–306.

[18] Shahbahrami, A., Bahrampour, R., Rostami, M.S., Mobarhan, M.A. (2011). Evaluation of Huffman and arithmetic algorithms for multimedia compression standards. Int. J. Comput. Sci. Eng. Appl., 1(4), 34–47.

[19] Kundert, K. (2012). Predicting the phase noise and jitter of PLL-based frequency synthesizers.

[20] Carr, J.J. (2002). RF Components and Circuits. Newnes.

[21] Marchetto, P., Strickhart, A., Mack, R., Cheyne, H. (2012). Temperature compensation of a quartz tuningfork clock crystal via post-processing. Proc. of Frequency Control Symp. IEEE Int. Baltimore, MD, 1–4.

[22] Castillo-Secilla, J.M., Palomares, J.M., Olivares, J. (2013). Temperature-compensated clock skew adjustment. Sensors, 13(8), 10981–11006.

[23] Filler, R. L. (1990). Thermal hysteresis in quartz crystal resonators and oscillators. Proc. of the 44th Annual Symp. on Frequency Control, IEEE. Baltimore, MD, 176–184.

Metrology and Measurement Systems

The Journal of Committee on Metrology and Scientific Instrumentation of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.598

CiteScore 2016: 1.58

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.460
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 1.228


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 78 72 6
PDF Downloads 56 52 7