Analysis of Noise and Non-Linearity of I-V Characteristics of Positive Temperature Coefficient Chip Thermistors

Open access


Noise spectroscopy and I-V characteristic non-linearity measurement were applied as diagnostic tools in order to characterize the volume and contact quality of positive temperature coefficient (PTC) chip sensors and to predict possible contact failure. Correctly made and stable contacts are crucial for proper sensing. I-V characteristics and time dependences of resistance were measured for studied sensors and, besides the samples with stable resistance value, spike type resistance fluctuation was observed for some samples. These spikes often disappear after about 24 hours of voltage application. Linear I-V characteristics were measured for the samples with stable resistance. The resistance fluctuation of burst noise type was observed for some samples showing the I-V characteristic dependent on the electric field orientation. We have found that the thermistors with high quality contacts had a linear I-V characteristic, the noise spectral density is of 1/f type and the third harmonic index is lower than 60 dB. The samples with poor quality contacts show non-linear I-V characteristics and excess noise is given by superposition of g-r and 1/fn type noises, and the third harmonic index is higher than 60 dB.

[1] Barsoukov, E., Macdonald, J. R. (2005). Impedance Spectroscopy: Theory, Experiment and Applications, John Wiley & Sons.

[2] Skale, S., Doleżek, V., Slemnik, M. (2008). Electrochemical impedance studies of corrosion protected surfaces covered by epoxy polyamide coating systems, Prog. Organic Coat., (62), no. 12, 2456−2460.

[3] Zhang, Xu, Koon Gee, Neoh, Anil, Kishen (2008). Monitoring acid-demineralization of human dentine by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Journal of Dentistry, 36(12), 1005−1012. (December 2008).

[4] Srinivas, K., Sarah, P., Suryanarayana, S. V. (2003). Impedance spectroscopy study of polycrystalline BI6FE2TI3O18, Bulletin of Material Science, (26), 247−253.

[5] Macdonald, J. R. (1999). LEVM Manual v.7.11. C,LS Immittance Fitting Program. Solartron Group Ltd.

[6] Angelini, E., Carullo, A., Corbellini, S., Ferraris, F., Gallone, V., Grassini, S., Parvis, M., Vallan, A. (2006). Handheld-impedance-measurement system with seven-decade capability and potentiostatic function. IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 55, no. 2, Apr. 2006, pp. 436−441.

[7] Santos, J., Ramos, P. (2011) DSPIC-Based Impedance Measuring Instrument. Metrology and Measurement Systems. Vol. XVIII, Issue 2, pp. 185-198.

[8] Ramos, P., Janeiro, F., Radil, T. (2010) Comparative Analysis of Three Algorithms for Two-Channel Common Frequency Sinewave Parameter Estimation: Ellipse Fit, Seven Parameter Sine Fit and Spectral Sinc Fit. Metrology and Measurement Systems. Vol. XVII, Issue 2, pp. 255-270

[9] Hoja, J., Lentka, G. (2006). Interface circuit for impedance sensors using two specialized single-chip microsystems. Sensors and Actuators A-physical, Vol. 163, No. 1, 2010, pp. 191−197.

[10] Uchiyama, T., Ishigame, S., Niitsuma, J., Aikawa, Y., Ohta, Y. (2008). Multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis of skin rubor with two-electrode technique, J. of Tissue Viability, 17(4), 110−114.

[11] Sanchez, B., Bragos, R., Vandersteen, G. (2011). Influence of the multisine excitation amplitude design for biomedical applications using impedance spectroscopy, 33rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS (Boston, USA, 30 August - 3 September 2011), pp 3975-78.

[12] Min, M., Ojarand, J., Märtens, O., Paavle, T., Land, R., Annus, P., Rist, M., Reidla, M., Parve, T., (2012). Binary signals in impedance spectroscopy, 34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS, (San Diego, USA, 28 August - 1 September 2012), pp 134-37.

[13] Mejia-Aguilar, A., Pallas-Areny, R. (2008). Electrical impedance measurement using pulse excitation, Proc. of 16th IMEKO TC4 Symp. (Florence, Italy, 22-24 September 2008,), pp 567-72.

[14] Smulko, J., Darowicki, K., Wysocki P. (1998). Digital measurement system for electrochemical noise. Polish Journal of Chemistry, 72(7), 1237−1241.

[15] Smulko, J., Darowicki, K., Zieliński, A. (2002). Detection of random transients caused by pitting corrosion. Electrochimica acta, 47(8), 1297−1303.

[16] Hoja, J., Lentka, G. (2011). Method using square-pulse excitation for high-impedance spectroscopy of anticorrosion coatings, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 60 957-64.

[17] U2541-90014, Agilent U2500A Series USB Simultaneous Sampling Multifunction Data Acquisition, Programmer’s Reference, Agilent Technologies, Inc., 2009.

[18] Bordzilowski, J., Darowicki, K., Krakowiak, S., Krolikowska, A., (2003). Impedance measurements of coating properties on bridge structures, Progress in Organic Coatings, Vol. 46, 216−219.

Metrology and Measurement Systems

The Journal of Committee on Metrology and Scientific Instrumentation of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.598

CiteScore 2016: 1.58

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.460
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 1.228


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 104 100 7
PDF Downloads 38 33 5