Laser Reflectance Interferometry System with a 405 Nm Laser Diode for in Situ Measurements of CVD Diamond Thickness

Open access


In situ monitoring of the thickness of thin diamond films during technological processes is important because it allows better control of deposition time and deeper understanding of deposition kinetics. One of the widely used techniques is laser reflectance interferometry (LRI) which enables non-contact measurement during CVD deposition. The authors have built a novel LRI system with a 405 nm laser diode which achieves better resolution compared to the systems based on He-Ne lasers, as reported so far. The system was used for in situ monitoring of thin, microcrystalline diamond films deposited on silicon substrate in PA-CVD processes. The thickness of each film was measured by stylus profilometry and spectral reflectance analysis as a reference. The system setup and interferometric signal processing are also presented for evaluating the system parameters, i.e. measurement uncertainty, resolution and the range of measurable film thickness.

[1] Bogdanowicz, R., Gnyba, M., Wroczynski, P., Kosmowski, B.B. (2010). Optoelectronic system for monitoring of thin diamond layers growth. Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, 12, 1660−1665.

[2] Smietana, M., Szmidt, J., Korwin-Pawlowski, M.L., Bock, W., Grabarczyk, J. (2007). Application of diamond-like carbon films in optical fibre sensors based on long-period gratings. Diamond and Related Materials, 16, 1374−1377.

[3] Smietana, M., Szmidt, J., Dudek, M., Niedzielski, P. (2004). Optical properties of diamond-like cladding for optical fibres. Diamond and Related Materials, 13, 954−957.

[4] Spanos, C.J., May, G.S. (2006). Fundamentals of Semiconductor Manufacturing and Process Control. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

[5] Wang, Z.L., Zhou, W. (2006). Scanning Microscopy of !anotechnology - Techniques and Applications. Springer-Verlag.

[6] Bogdanowicz, R., Gnyba, M., Wroczynski, P. (2006). Optoelectronic monitoring of plasma discharge optimized for thin diamond film synthesis. Journal de Physique IV (Proceedings), 137, 57−60.

[7] Bogdanowicz, R., Ryl, J. (2007). Ellipsometric data analysis used in on-line metal passivation monitoring. Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top, 144, 215−220.

[8] Irene, E.A., Tompkins, H.G. (2005). Handbook of Ellipsometry. William Andrew Publishing/Springer.

[9] Jennet, H., Bubert, H. (2002). Surface and Thin Film Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

[10] Luo, J., Ying, X., Wang, P., Chen, L. (2002). Study of the growth of CVD diamond thin films by in situ reflectivity measurement. Diamond and Related Materials, 11, 1871−1875.

[11] Bonnot, A.M., Schauer, R., Weidner, B. (1998). HFCVD diamond film nucleation and growth studies by in situ optical technique and ex-situ AFM observations. Diamond and Related Materials., 7, 205−208.

[12] Zuiker, C.D., Gruen, D.M., Krauss, A.R. (1996). In situ reflectance interferometry measurement of diamond film growth. Journal of Applied Physics, 79, 3541−3547.

[13] Plucinski, J., Hypszer, R., Wierzba, P., Strakowski, M., Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M., Maciejewski, M., Kosmowski, B.B. (2008). Optical low-coherence interferometry for selected technical applications. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Technical Sciences, 56(2), 155−172.

[14] Fabianska, A., Ossowski, T., Bogdanowicz, R., Czupryniak, J., Gnyba, M., Odzga, T., Janssens, S.D., Haenen, K., Siedlecka, E.M. (2012). Electrochemical oxidation of ionic liquids at highly boron doped diamond electrodes. Physica Status Solidi (a), 209, 1797−1803.

[15] Wolter, S.D., Schlesser, R., Okuzumi, F., Prater, J.T., Sitar, Z. (2001). Angle-dependent reflectometry as a technique for fast assessment of highly oriented diamond film quality. Diamond and Related Materials., 10(11), 2092−2095.

[16] Paszek, M.J., DuFort, C.C., Rubashkin, M.G., Davidson, M.W., Thorn, K.S., Liphardt, J.T., Weaver, V.M. (2012). Scanning angle interference microscopy reveals cell dynamics at the nanoscale. !ature Methods., 9, 825−827.

[17] Sethuraman, V.A., Chon, M.J., Shimshak, M., Srinivasan, V,. Guduru, P.R. (2010). In situ measurements of stress evolution in silicon thin films during electrochemical lithiation and delithiation. Journal of Power Sources., 195(15), 5062−5066.

[18] Vogel, M., Stenzel, O., Petrich, R., Schaarschmidt, G., Scharff, W. (1993). The position of the fundamental absorption edge and activation energies for thermally activated electrical conductivity in amorphous carbon layers. Thin Solid Films, 227, 74−89.

[19] Fabiańska, Ossowski, T., Bogdanowicz, R., Czupryniak, J., Gnyba, J., Odzga, T., Janssens, S.D., Haenen, K., Siedlecka, E.M. (2012). Physica Status Solidi (a). 209, 1797−1803.

[20] Bogdanowicz, R., Czupryniak, J., Gnyba, M., Ryl, J., Ossowski, T., Sobaszek, M., Siedlecka, E.M., Darowicki, K. (2013). Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical .10.1016/j.snb.2012.12.007.

[21] Siapkas, D.I., Mitsas, C.L. (1995). Generalized matrix method for analysis of coherent and incoherent reflectance and transmittance of multilayer structures with rough surfaces, interfaces and finite substrates. Applied Optics, 34, 1678−1683.

[22] Katsidis, C., Siapkas, D.I. (2002). General transfer-matrix method for optical multilayer systems with coherent, partially coherent and incoherent interference. Applied Optics, 41, 3978−3987

[23] Press, W.H., Teukolsky, S.A., Vetterling, W.T., Flannery, B.P. (1992). !umerical Recipes in C. Cambridge University Press.

[24] Hu, Z.G., Prunici, P., Hess, P., Chen, K.H. (2007). Optical properties of nanocrystalline diamond films from mid-infrared to ultraviolet using reflectometry and ellipsometry. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 18, 37−41.

Metrology and Measurement Systems

The Journal of Committee on Metrology and Scientific Instrumentation of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.598

CiteScore 2016: 1.58

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.460
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 1.228


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 155 155 20
PDF Downloads 45 45 7