Enhanced Secure Key Exchange Systems Based on the Johnson- Noise Scheme

Open access


We introduce seven new versions of the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-(like)-Noise (KLJN) classical physical secure key exchange scheme and a new transient protocol for practically-perfect security. While these practical improvements offer progressively enhanced security and/or speed for non-ideal conditions, the fundamental physical laws providing the security remain the same.

In the "intelligent" KLJN (iKLJN) scheme, Alice and Bob utilize the fact that they exactly know not only their own resistor value but also the stochastic time function of their own noise, which they generate before feeding it into the loop. By using this extra information, they can reduce the duration of exchanging a single bit and in this way they achieve not only higher speed but also an enhanced security because Eve’s information will significantly be reduced due to smaller statistics.

In the "multiple" KLJN (MKLJN) system, Alice and Bob have publicly known identical sets of different resistors with a proper, publicly known truth table about the bit-interpretation of their combination. In this new situation, for Eve to succeed, it is not enough to find out which end has the higher resistor. Eve must exactly identify the actual resistor values at both sides.

In the "keyed" KLJN (KKLJN) system, by using secure communication with a formerly shared key, Alice and Bob share a proper time-dependent truth table for the bit-interpretation of the resistor situation for each secure bit exchange step during generating the next key. In this new situation, for Eve to succeed, it is not enough to find out the resistor values at the two ends. Eve must also know the former key.

The remaining four KLJN schemes are the combinations of the above protocols to synergically enhance the security properties. These are: the "intelligent-multiple" (iMKLJN), the "intelligent-keyed" (iKKLJN), the "keyed-multiple" (KMKLJN) and the "intelligent-keyed-multiple" (iKMKLJN) KLJN key exchange systems.

Finally, we introduce a new transient-protocol offering practically-perfect security without privacy amplification, which is not needed in practical applications but it is shown for the sake of ongoing discussions.

[1] Liang Y, Poor HV, Shamai S (2008) Information theoretic security. Foundations Trends Commun. Inform. Theory 5:355-580. DOI: 10.1561/0100000036.

[2] Mingesz, R, Kish, LB, Gingl Z, Granqvist CG, Wen H, Peper F, Eubanks T, Schmera G (2013) Unconditional security by the laws of classical physics. Metrology & Measurement Systems, 20:3.16. open access: http://www.metrology.pg.gda.pl/full/2013/M&MS_2013_003.pdf.

[3] Mingesz, R, Kish, LB, Gingl Z, Granqvist CG, Wen H, Peper F, Eubanks T, Schmera G (2013) Information theoretic security by the laws of classical physics. In: Balas VE et al. (Eds.), Soft Computing Applications, AISC 195:11.25 (Springer).

[4] Kish LB (2006) Totally secure classical communication utilizing Johnson(-like) noise and Kirchhoff.s law. Phys. Lett. A 352:178-182.

[5] Cho A (2005) Simple noise may stymie spies without quantum weirdness. Science 309:2148; http://www.ece.tamu.edu/~noise/news_files/science_secure.pdf.

[6] Kish LB (2006) Protection against the man-in-the-middle-attack for the Kirchhoff-loop-Johnson(-like)- noise cipher and expansion by voltage-based security. Fluct. Noise Lett. 6 :L57-L63. http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0512177.

[7] Mingesz R, Gingl Z, Kish LB (2008) Johnson(-like)-noise-Kirchhoff-loop based secure classical communicator characteristics, for ranges of two to two thousand kilometers, via model-line, Phys. Lett. A 372:978-984.

[8] Palmer DJ (2007) Noise encryption keeps spooks out of the loop. New Scientist, issue 2605 p.32; http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19426055.300-noise-keeps-spooks-out-of-the-loop.html.

[9] Kish LB, Horvath T (2009) Notes on recent approaches concerning the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise-based secure key exchange. Phys. Lett. A 373:901-904.

[10] Kish LB, Scheuer J (2010) Noise in the wire: The real impact of wire resistance for the Johnson(-like) noise based secure communicator. Phys. Lett. A374:2140-2142.

[11] Kish LB (2006) Response to Scheuer-Yariv: .A classical key-distribution system based on Johnson (like) noise . How secure?.. Phys. Lett. A 359:741-744.

[12] Kish LB (2006) Response to Feng Hao.s paper .Kish.s key exchange scheme is insecure.. Fluct. Noise Lett. 6:C37-C41.

[13] Horvath T, Kish LB, Scheuer J (2011) Effective privacy amplification for secure classical communications. Europhys. Lett. 94:28002. http://arxiv.org/abs/1101.4264.

[14] Kish LB, Saidi O (2008) Unconditionally secure computers, algorithms and hardware. Fluct. Noise Lett. 8:L95-L98.

[15] Kish LB, Mingesz R (2006) Totally secure classical networks with multipoint telecloning (teleportation) of classical bits through loops with Johnson-like noise. Fluct. Noise Lett. 6:C9-C21.

[16] Kish LB, Peper F (2012) Information networks secured by the laws of physics. IEICE Trans. Commun. E95-B:1501-1507.

[17] Kish LB (2009) Noise-based logic: Binary, multi-valued, or fuzzy, with optional superposition of logic states. Phys. Lett. A 373:911-918.

[18] Kish LB, Khatri S, Sethuraman S (2009) Noise-based logic hyperspace with the superposition of 2^N states in a single wire. Phys. Lett. A 373:1928-1934.

[19] Bezrukov SM, Kish LB (2009) Deterministic multivalued logic scheme for information processing and routing in the brain. Phys. Lett. A 373:2338-2342.

[20] Gingl Z, Khatri S, Kish LB (2010) Towards brain-inspired computing. Fluct. Noise Lett. 9:403-412.

[21] Kish LB, Khatri S, Horvath T (2011) Computation using noise-based logic: Efficient string verification over a slow communication channel. Eur. J. Phys. B 79:85-90. http://arxiv.org/ abs/1005.1560.

[22] Peper F, Kish LB (2011) Instantaneous, non-squeezed, noise-based logic. Fluct. Noise Lett. 10:231-237. http://www.worldscinet.com/fnl/10/1002/open-access/S0219477511000521. pdf.

[23] Wen H, Kish LB, Klappenecker A, Peper F (2012) New noise-based logic representations to avoid some problems with time complexity. Fluct. Noise Lett. 11:1250003 ; http://arxiv.org/abs/1111.3859.

[24] Mullins J (2010) Breaking the noise barrier. New Scientist, issue 2780 (29 September 2010); http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20827801.500-breaking-the-noise-barrier. html?full=true.

[25] Yuen HP (2009) Key generation: Foundation and a new quantum approach, IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 15, 1630.

Metrology and Measurement Systems

The Journal of Committee on Metrology and Scientific Instrumentation of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.598

CiteScore 2016: 1.58

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.460
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 1.228

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 283 283 34
PDF Downloads 79 79 13